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AzerbaijaniEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • -il (attached to stems containing 'i', 'e' and 'ə')
  • -ıl (attached to stems containing 'a' or 'ı')
  • -ul (attached to stems containing 'o' or 'u')

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-ül

  1. Suffix appended to transitive verbs to derive verbs with passive or reflexive meaning. Applies only to verb stems containing 'ü', and 'ö'[1]
    döymək (to beat) + ‎-ül → ‎döyülmək (to get beaten)
    tökmək (to pour) + ‎-ül → ‎tökülmək (to fall out, get spilled)

Derived termsEdit

Category Azerbaijani words suffixed with -ül not found


ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Širalijev, Mamedaga; Sevortjan, Ervand (1971), “-ül”, in Grammatika azerbajdžanskovo jazyka. Fonetika, morfologija i sintaksis. [Grammar of Azerbaijani language. Phonetics, morphology, syntax.], Baku: Elm, pages 106-108

HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-ül

  1. (verb-forming suffix) Appended to an adjective to form an intransitive verb. It is similar to -edik.
    zöld (green)zöldül (to become (more) green)
    szép (beautiful)szépül (to become (more) beautiful)
  2. (case suffix) Appended to an adjective to form an adverb (the modal sense of the essive-modal case).
    feltétlen (unconditional, definite)feltétlenül (unconditionally, definitely)
    török (Turkish)törökül (in Turkish)
  3. (case suffix) as, with the intention of (the essive sense of the essive-modal case)
    Synonyms: -ként, -képp/-képpen, mint (stating the capacity)
    meglepetés (surprise) → meglepetésül (“as a surprise”)
    vég (end)végül (finally, eventually) (literally, “as an/the end”)

Usage notesEdit

  • (verb-forming suffix) Harmonic variants:
    -ul is added to back vowel words. Final vowel is dropped.
    -ül is added to front vowel words. Final vowel is dropped.
    gyenge (weak)gyengül (to weaken)
  • (case case) Harmonic variants:
    -ul is added to back vowel words. Final -a changes to -á-.
    -ül is added to front vowel words. Final -e changes to -é-.

Derived termsEdit


See alsoEdit


VolapükEdit

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-ül

  1. offspring, young (of an animal)
  2. Hypocoristic or used to denote affection for the noun.

Usage notesEdit

  • In many languages, the diminutive form of a word can also be used to denote not (just) littleness but (also) affection or intimacy (for the word's referent), whereas in Volapük this secondary meaning of the diminutive is split off, since Volapük attempts, somewhat like Lojban, to avoid polysemy.

Derived termsEdit