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U+4FE1, 信
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4FE1

[U+4FE0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4FE2]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 9, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人卜一口 (OYMR), four-corner 20261, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 105, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 707
  • Dae Jaweon: page 224, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 165, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4FE1

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms
2nd‐round simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (person) +  (word) – a person's (truthful) words.

EtymologyEdit

Possibly derived from (OC *lunʔ) (minimally reconstructed: *winʔ ~ *junʔ) (Schuessler, 2007)

Alternatively, Baxter & Sagart (2012) reconstruct *s-niŋ-s and suggest a derivation, albeit uncertain, from (OC niŋ) with valency-increasing prefix s-; as apparently "while 仁 rén means 'kindness' as a property of a single person, when 信 xìn is used, it refers to a quality directed to another person"

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕin˥˩/
Harbin /ɕin˥˧/
Tianjin /ɕin˥˧/
Jinan /ɕiẽ˨˩/
Qingdao /siə̃˦˨/
Zhengzhou /sin˧˩˨/
Xi'an /ɕiẽ˦˦/
Xining /ɕiə̃˨˩˧/
Yinchuan /ɕiŋ˩˧/
Lanzhou /ɕĩn˩˧/
Ürümqi /ɕiŋ˨˩˧/
Wuhan /ɕin˧˥/
Chengdu /ɕin˩˧/
Guiyang /ɕin˨˩˧/
Kunming /ɕĩ˨˩˨/
Nanjing /sin˦˦/
Hefei /ɕin˥˧/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəŋ˦˥/
Pingyao /ɕiŋ˧˥/
Hohhot /ɕĩŋ˥˥/
Wu Shanghai /ɕiŋ˧˥/
Suzhou /sin˥˩˧/
Hangzhou /ɕin˦˦˥/
Wenzhou /saŋ˦˨/
Hui Shexian /siʌ̃˧˨˦/
Tunxi /sin˦˨/
Xiang Changsha /sin˥˥/
Xiangtan /sin˥˥/
Gan Nanchang /ɕin˦˥/
Hakka Meixian /sin˥˧/
Taoyuan /sin˥˥/
Cantonese Guangzhou /søn˧˧/
Nanning /ɬɐn˧˧/
Hong Kong /søn˧˧/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sin˨˩/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛiŋ˨˩˨/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /seiŋ˧˧/
Shantou (Min Nan) /siŋ˨˩˧/
Haikou (Min Nan) /tin˧˥/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (43)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siɪnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/sinH/
Shao
Rongfen
/sjenH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sinH/
Li
Rong
/siĕnH/
Wang
Li
/sĭĕnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯ĕnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xìn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xìn
Middle
Chinese
‹ sinH ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-ni[ŋ]-s/
English truthful

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13849
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hljins/
Notes
使

DefinitionsEdit

  1. true; accurate; verifiable
  2. truly; indeed
  3. trustworthy
  4. to believe; to trust in something
      ―  Wǒ cái bù xìn ne.  ―  I don't believe it/you.
  5. trust; confidence; faith
      ―  xìnrèn  ―  trust
    稱義 / 称义  ―  yīn xìn chēngyì  ―  to be justified by faith
  6. to believe in (a faith); to be religious in
    父親佛教 / 父亲佛教  ―  Wǒ fùqīn xìn fójiào.  ―  My father is a Buddhist. (lit. My father believes in Buddhism.)
  7. at will
    口雌黃 / 口雌黄  ―  xìnkǒu cíhuáng  ―  to make irresponsible remarks (lit. to correct someone with at will)
  8. letter (written communication) (Classifier: m c)
  9. message; news; information
      ―  xìn  ―  news, message
  10. evidence
      ―  xìn  ―  token, keepsake

SynonymsEdit

  • (to believe):
  • (letter):
Dialectal synonyms of (“letter”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 書信, 信件, 信函, 書函, 書簡, 書牘, 書札
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Muping
Luoyang
Wanrong
Xi'an
Xining
Xuzhou
Yinchuan
Lanzhou
Ürümqi
Wuhan
Chengdu
Guiyang
Liuzhou
Yangzhou
Nanjing
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Foshan
Shunde
Zhongshan (Shiqi)
Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
Taishan
Kaiping (Chikan)
Dongguan
Shaoguan
Yunfu
Yangjiang
Xinyi
Lianjiang
Gan Nanchang
Lichuan
Pingxiang
Hakka Meixian
Yudu
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 信仔
Liudui (S. Sixian) 信仔
Hsinchu (Hailu) 信仔
Dongshi (Dabu)
Hsinchu (Raoping) 信仔,
Yunlin (Zhao'an) ,
Huizhou Jixi
Jin Taiyuan
Xinzhou
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Matsu
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Hsinchu
Lukang
Sanxia
Yilan
Kinmen
Magong
Penang
Singapore
Philippines (Manila)
Chaozhou ,
Haikou
Leizhou
Puxian Min Putian
Xianyou
Pinghua Nanning
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Chongming
Danyang
Jinhua
Ningbo
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng
Loudi

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana しん, rōmaji shin)

  1. trust, faith
     (しん) ()く、 (しん) ()
    shin o oku, shin o eru
    to put one's trust (in something), to gain someone's trust

Related termsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(sin)

  1. believe/trust

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(tín, tin)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit