See also: and
U+4FE1, 信
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4FE1

[U+4FE0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4FE2]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 9, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人卜一口 (OYMR), four-corner 20261, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 105, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 707
  • Dae Jaweon: page 224, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 165, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4FE1

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

2nd‐round simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (person) + (word)

Etymology 1Edit

Schuessler (2007) reconstructs the Old Chinese minimally as *sin and suggests possible derivation from (OC *winʔ, “to trust; to be true”).

Alternatively, Sagart and Baxter (2012) reconstruct *s-niŋ-s (*s-ni[ŋ]-s in Baxter and Sagart, 2014) and suggest a derivation from (OC *niŋ, “kind”) with the prefix *s-, probably used to increase its valency.

PronunciationEdit


Note: lhin1* - “letter”.
Note:
  • sing3/sêng3 - literary (sêng3 - Jieyang);
  • siang3 - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕin⁵¹/
    Harbin /ɕin⁵³/
    Tianjin /ɕin⁵³/
    Jinan /ɕiẽ²¹/
    Qingdao /siə̃⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /sin³¹²/
    Xi'an /ɕiẽ⁴⁴/
    Xining /ɕiə̃²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ɕiŋ¹³/
    Lanzhou /ɕĩn¹³/
    Ürümqi /ɕiŋ²¹³/
    Wuhan /ɕin³⁵/
    Chengdu /ɕin¹³/
    Guiyang /ɕin²¹³/
    Kunming /ɕĩ²¹²/
    Nanjing /sin⁴⁴/
    Hefei /ɕin⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəŋ⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /ɕiŋ³⁵/
    Hohhot /ɕĩŋ⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /ɕiŋ³⁵/
    Suzhou /sin⁵¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɕin⁴⁴⁵/
    Wenzhou /saŋ⁴²/
    Hui Shexian /siʌ̃³²⁴/
    Tunxi /sin⁴²/
    Xiang Changsha /sin⁵⁵/
    Xiangtan /sin⁵⁵/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕin⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /sin⁵³/
    Taoyuan /sin⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /søn³³/
    Nanning /ɬɐn³³/
    Hong Kong /søn³³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sin²¹/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sɛiŋ²¹²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /seiŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /siŋ²¹³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /tin³⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (16)
    Final () (43)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /siɪnH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /sinH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /sjenH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /sinH/
    Li
    Rong
    /siĕnH/
    Wang
    Li
    /sĭĕnH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /si̯ĕnH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xìn
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    san3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xìn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sinH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-ni[ŋ]-s/
    English truthful

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13849
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*hljins/
    Notes
    使

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. true; accurate; verifiable
    2. truly; indeed
    3. trustworthy
    4. to believe; to trust in something
        ―  Wǒ cái bù xìn ne.  ―  I don't believe it/you.
    5. trust; confidence; faith
        ―  xìnrèn  ―  trust
      稱義 / 称义  ―  yīn xìn chēngyì  ―  to be justified by faith
    6. to believe in (a faith); to be religious in
      父親佛教 / 父亲佛教  ―  Wǒ fùqīn xìn fójiào.  ―  My father is a Buddhist. (lit. My father believes in Buddhism.)
    7. at will
      口雌黃 / 口雌黄  ―  xìnkǒu cíhuáng  ―  to make irresponsible remarks (lit. to correct someone with at will)
    8. letter (written communication) (Classifier: m c mn)
    9. message; news; information
        ―  xìn  ―  news, message
    10. evidence
        ―  xìn  ―  token, keepsake
    11. courier; messenger
    12. (mineralogy) arsenolite
    13. A surname​: Xin
    SynonymsEdit
    • (true):
    • (to believe):
    • 相信 (xiāngxìn)
    • 置信 (zhìxìn) (chiefly used in the negative)
    • (to believe in a faith): 信仰 (xìnyǎng)
    • (letter):
    • (information):
    • (evidence):

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Via 假借 (jiǎjiè, “borrowing”).

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (shēn, “to express; to state”).
    2. Alternative form of (shēn, “to extend”).

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    NounEdit

    (しん) (shin

    1. trust, faith
      (しん)()く、(しん)()
      shin o oku, shin o eru
      to put one's trust (in something), to gain someone's trust

    Related termsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 믿을 (mideul sin))

    1. Hanja form? of (believe; trust).

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: tín, tin

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit