See also: and
U+4FE1, 信
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4FE1

[U+4FE0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4FE2]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 9, +7, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人卜一口 (OYMR), four-corner 20261, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 105, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 707
  • Dae Jaweon: page 224, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 165, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4FE1

Chinese

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Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character


References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *hljins) : phonetic (OC *njin, person) + semantic (word).

Etymology 1

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simp. and trad.
2nd round simp.
alternative forms

Schuessler (2007) reconstructs the Old Chinese minimally as *sin and suggests possible derivation from (OC *winʔ, “to trust; to be true”).

Alternatively, Sagart and Baxter (2012) reconstruct *s-niŋ-s (*s-ni[ŋ]-s in Baxter and Sagart, 2014) and suggest a derivation from (OC *niŋ, “kind”) with the prefix *s-, probably used to increase its valency.

Pronunciation

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Note: Erhuayin chiefly for "message" sense.
Note: lhin1* - “letter”.
Note:
  • sing3/sêng3 - literary (sêng3 - Jieyang);
  • siang3 - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕin⁵¹/
Harbin /ɕin⁵³/
Tianjin /ɕin⁵³/
Jinan /ɕiẽ²¹/
Qingdao /siə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /sin³¹²/
Xi'an /ɕiẽ⁴⁴/
Xining /ɕiə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /ɕiŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /ɕĩn¹³/
Ürümqi /ɕiŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /ɕin³⁵/
Chengdu /ɕin¹³/
Guiyang /ɕin²¹³/
Kunming /ɕĩ²¹²/
Nanjing /sin⁴⁴/
Hefei /ɕin⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕiəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /ɕiŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /ɕĩŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ɕiŋ³⁵/
Suzhou /sin⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /ɕin⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /saŋ⁴²/
Hui Shexian /siʌ̃³²⁴/
Tunxi /sin⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /sin⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /sin⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /ɕin⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /sin⁵³/
Taoyuan /sin⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /søn³³/
Nanning /ɬɐn³³/
Hong Kong /søn³³/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /sin²¹/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /sɛiŋ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /seiŋ³³/
Shantou (Teochew) /siŋ²¹³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /tin³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (43)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter sinH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siɪnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/sinH/
Shao
Rongfen
/sjenH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sinH/
Li
Rong
/siĕnH/
Wang
Li
/sĭĕnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯ĕnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xìn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
san3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xìn
Middle
Chinese
‹ sinH ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-ni[ŋ]-s/
English truthful

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13849
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hljins/
Notes
使

Definitions

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  1. true; accurate; verifiable
  2. truly; indeed
  3. trustworthy
  4. to believe; to trust in something
      ―  Wǒ cái bù xìn ne.  ―  I don't believe it/you.
      ―  xìnrèn  ―  to trust
  5. to believe in (a faith); to be religious in
    父親佛教父亲佛教  ―  Wǒ fùqīn xìn fójiào.  ―  My father is a Buddhist. (lit. My father believes in Buddhism.)
  6. trust; confidence; faith
    稱義称义  ―  yīn xìn chēngyì  ―  to be justified by faith
  7. at will
    口雌黃口雌黄  ―  xìnkǒu cíhuáng  ―  to make irresponsible remarks (lit. to correct someone with at will)
  8. letter (written communication) (Classifier: m c mn)
  9. message; information; news
      ―  xìn  ―  message
  10. evidence
      ―  xìn  ―  token, keepsake
  11. courier; messenger
  12. Short for 信州 (Xìnzhōu).
  13. (mineralogy) Short for 信石 (xìnshí, “arsenolite”).
  14. a surname: Xin
Synonyms
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  • (true):
  • (to believe):
  • (to believe in a faith): 信仰 (xìnyǎng)
  • (letter):
  • (message):
  • (information):
  • (evidence):

Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Vietnamese: tín ()

Others:

  • Vietnamese: tin

Etymology 2

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simp. and trad.

Via 假借 (jiǎjiè, “borrowing”).

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. Alternative form of (shēn, to express; to state)
  2. Alternative form of (shēn, to extend)
  3. Alternative form of (body)

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(Fourth grade kyōiku kanji)

Readings

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Compounds

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Noun

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(しん) (shin

  1. trust, faith
    (しん)()く、(しん)()
    shin o oku, shin o eru
    to put one's trust (in something), to gain someone's trust
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Korean

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

Pronunciation

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  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ɕʰi(ː)n]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 믿을 (mideul sin))

  1. Hanja form? of (believe; trust).

Compounds

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: tín, tin

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References

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