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U+5C0F, 小
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5C0F

[U+5C0E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5C10]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 42 +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input 弓金 (NC), four-corner 90000, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #42, .
  2. Shuōwén Jiězì radical №15

Derived glyphsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 296, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7473
  • Dae Jaweon: page 587, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 560, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+5C0F

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Qin bamboo and wooden slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sm̥ʰreːw, *sm̥ʰreːws
*sm̥ʰreːw, *sm̥ʰreːws
*sm̥ʰreːw, *sm̥ʰreːws
*sm̥ʰreːw, *mewʔ
*sʰroːʔ
*sm̥ʰreːwʔ, *mewʔ
*sm̥ʰreːws
*sm̥ʰreːws
*mewʔ
*mewʔ
*mewʔ
*mewʔ
*mewʔ, *mews
*mews
*mews
*sm̥ʰewʔ
*smewʔ
*hmjewʔ, *hmjews
*m̥ʰjewʔ
*senʔ, *smos

Two possible interpretations:

  • Ideogram (指事) – three small dots > small.
  • Pictogram (象形) – three granules of sand – original character of (OC *sraːl, *sraːls) > small.

Starting from some bronze inscriptions, the dots have become elongated. Based on this form, Shuowen erroneously considers it to be an ideogrammic compound (會意):  (to divide; to separate) +  (small object).

Compare with (OC *hmjewʔ, *hmjews), represented by four dots in its oracle bone script form.

EtymologyEdit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sió - vernacular;
  • siáu - literary.
Note:
  • siê2/sio2 - vernacular;
  • siao2/siou2 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (91)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siᴇuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/siɛuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/sjæuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/siawX/
Li
Rong
/siɛuX/
Wang
Li
/sĭɛuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯ɛuX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiǎo
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiǎo
Middle
Chinese
‹ sjewX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s]ewʔ/
English small

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13705
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*smewʔ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. small, tiny, little
    Antonyms: ()
    • 小孩 (xiǎohái, “child”)
  2. minor, petty
  3. briefly, for a short while
    • 小憩 (xiǎoqì, “brief rest”)
  4. slightly, a little
  5. young
    Antonyms: (lǎo)
  6. (the) youngest
  7. a young person; child, kid, baby
    • 一家老  ―  yījiālǎoxiǎo  ―  the entire family, old and young
  8. Prefix used in front of family name to indicate informality or affection (for young people, (lǎo) for elder people).
    • For example, Someone called 李國寶/李国宝 can be called 小李.
  9. (humble) my, our
    •   ―  xiǎo  ―  [humble] I
    •   ―  xiǎo  ―  [humble] my daughter
    •   ―  xiǎode  ―  [humble] I
  10. Short for 小學小学 (xiǎoxué, “primary school”). Used only in the abbreviation of a school name.
    •   ―  Èr Xiǎo  ―  No.2 Primary School
  11. (euphemistic, Cantonese) a euphemism of (diǎo)
SynonymsEdit
Dialectal synonyms of (“small”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Tianjin
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Xingning
Huidong
Qujiang
Xiaosanjiang
Changting
Pingyu
Wuping
Liancheng
Ninghua
Ruijin
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Hsinchu
Lukang
Sanxia
Yilan
Kinmen
Magong
Chaozhou
Wu Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  (しょう) (shō)
  • Korean: (, so)
  • Vietnamese: tiểu ()

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

See alsoEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
しょう
Grade: 1
on’yomi

/seu//ɕeu//ɕoː/

From Middle Chinese (MC siᴇuX).

The suffix sense is a clipping of 小学校 (shōgakkō, elementary school).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana しょう, rōmaji shō, historical hiragana せう)

  1. smallness; small size, small (sometimes used as an abbreviation for small serving, etc.)
  2. Short for 小の月 (shō no tsuki).
  3. (historical) during the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, a unit of field area equal to around 400 square metres. (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    100 square footsteps before the Taikō land survey, and 120 square footsteps after.
AntonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit
IdiomsEdit
Coordinate termsEdit
  • (historical unit):
    •  (だい) (dai, 200/240 square footsteps)
    •  (はん) (han, 150/180 square footsteps; about 595.8m2)
    •  (しょう) (shō, 100/120 square footsteps; about 400m2)

PrefixEdit

(hiragana しょう, rōmaji shō-, historical hiragana せう)

  1. small, little

SuffixEdit

(hiragana しょう, rōmaji -shō, historical hiragana せう)

  1. suffix after names of elementary schools
     (つくだ) (しょう)
    tsukuda-shō
    Tsukuda Elementary School

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana しょう, rōmaji Shō, historical hiragana せう)

  1. a surname​.

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun’yomi

/ko1/ invalid IPA characters (1)/ko/

From the Old Japanese stem (ko-). Cognate with (ko, child).

PrefixEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji ko-)

  1. less in size or quantity, small, little, short
  2. less in intensity, small, light, slight
  3. of secondary importance, secondary, sub-
  4. infant

Related termsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun’yomi

/wo//o/

From the Old Japanese stem (wo-), modern (o-).

PrefixEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji o-, historical hiragana )

  1. attached to certain nouns:
    1. small in shape or scale
      (ogawa, creek, literally "small river")
      (obune, small boat)
    2. attached to certain names to give expression or feelings (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
      (Oda, literally, "small rice paddy")
      (Ono, literally, "small field")
  2. used proverbially to represent "small" or "slight" (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    小止みなく降る雨 (oyaminaku furu ame)
    小暗い (ogurai michi)

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
ささ
Grade: 1
kun’yomi
Kanji in this term
さざ
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

From the Old Japanese stem ささ (sasa-), found in terms such as (sasa, bamboo grass), 囁く (sasayaku, to whisper), and 些か (isasaka, a little), all related to small or slight.

Saza appears to be a later derivation from sasa.

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

(hiragana ささ, rōmaji sasa-, alternative reading さざ, rōmaji saza-)

  1. attached to certain nouns to mean:
    1. small
    2. fine
    3. slight

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(so)

  1. smallness, small things

CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(tiểu)

  1. (only before noun) small