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U+864E, 虎
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-864E

[U+864D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+864F]
U+2EC1, ⻁
CJK RADICAL TIGER

[U+2EC0]
CJK Radicals Supplement
[U+2EC2]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 141, +2, 8 strokes, cangjie input 卜心竹弓 (YPHN) or 卜心竹山 (YPHU), four-corner 21217, composition (JKT) or (GV))

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1073, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32675
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1539, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2819, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+864E

Chinese

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Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin

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Pictogram (象形) . represents the tiger's head. The torso has disappeared and the legs and the tail have transformed into in the small seal script and later in the clerical script.

Etymology 1

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
 
A tiger.

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *k-la (tiger), from Proto-Mon-Khmer *klaʔ (tiger). Cognate with (OC *daː) in 於菟 (OC *qa daː, “tiger”). Compare Vietnamese khái ("tiger"). Hill (2019) compares it to Tibetan སྟག (stag, tiger).

Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter xuX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/huoX/
Pan
Wuyun
/huoX/
Shao
Rongfen
/xoX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hɔX/
Li
Rong
/xoX/
Wang
Li
/xuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xuoX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
fu2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ xuX ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʰˁraʔ/ (W dialect: *qˁʰr- >r̥ˁ- > x-)
English tiger

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 5230
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰlaːʔ/

Definitions

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  1. tiger
      ―  lǎo  ―  tiger
  2. (figurative) brave; fierce
  3. (dialectal) to show a stern or fierce look
  4. a surname
  5. (Northeastern Mandarin, derogatory) overbold; stupid
Synonyms
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Compounds

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Etymology 2

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trad.
simp. #

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. Only used in 馬虎马虎 (mǎhu).

Compounds

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Etymology 3

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trad.
simp. #

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. Only used in 虎不拉 (hùbulǎ).

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. tiger

Readings

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Etymology

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Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
とら
Grade: S
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese to1ra,[1][2] from Proto-Japonic *tora.

Pellard (2013, 92) includes to1ra among words with o1 excepted from the /-o-/ to /-u-/ vowel-raising rule and not originating from earlier diphthongs. According to Vovin (2021, 111), West Old Japanese *to1ra, instead of expected *tura, is "anomalous" and possibly "a case of a sporadic analogical development".

Vovin (2013) asserts that this word is same as a Silla place name 刀良 (/*tora/), which matches the Old Japanese phonographic spelling.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(とら) or (トラ) (tora

  1. a tiger (The mammal Panthera tigris)

Usage notes

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As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts (where katakana is customary), as トラ.

Derived terms

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References

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  1. ^ Frellesvig, Bjarke, Stephen Wright Horn, et al. (eds.) (2023) “Old Japanese twora”, in Oxford-NINJAL Corpus of Old Japanese[1]
  2. ^ Thomas Pellard. Ryukyuan perspectives on the proto-Japonic vowel system. Frellesvig, Bjarke; Sells, Peter. Japanese/Korean Linguistics 20, CSLI Publications, pp.81–96, 2013, 9781575866383. ffhal01289288
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  4. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC xuX). Recorded as Middle Korean 호〯 (hwǒ) (Yale: hwo) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (beom ho))

  1. Hanja form? of (tiger).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Okinawan

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Kanji

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(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. tiger

Readings

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Etymology

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Kanji in this term
とぅら
Grade: S
kun’yomi

Cognate with Japanese (tora, tiger).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(とぅら) (tura

  1. tiger

References

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  • とぅら【虎】” in JLect - Japonic Languages and Dialects Database Dictionary, 2019.

Old Japanese

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Etymology

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From Proto-Japonic *tora.

Pellard (2013, 92) includes to1ra among words with o1 excepted from the /-o-/ to /-u-/ vowel-raising rule and not originating from earlier diphthongs. According to Vovin (2021, 111), West Old Japanese *to1ra, instead of expected *tura, is "anomalous" and possibly "a case of a sporadic analogical development".

Vovin (2013) asserts that this word is same as a Silla place name 刀良 (/*tora/), which matches the Old Japanese phonographic spelling.

Noun

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(to1ra)

  1. tiger
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 2, poem 199a:
      吹響流小角乃音母敵見有可吼登諸人之恊流麻低爾
      PUKI1NASEru KUDA no2 OTO2 mo ATA MI1TARU TO1RA ka POYURU to2 MORO2P11TO2 NO2 OBI1YUru madeni
      I blow with the tube to sing, and the tiger howls at the enemy, to where everyone got scared.
  2. year of the Tiger
    • Shōsōin document, text here
      [...] 次刀良〈年廿五二目盲、癈疾〉[...] 次刀良売〈年十二小女〉
      TUGI1 to1ra (TO2SI PA NIPU-GO1-NI ME2 NO2 MI1YAWU, POZITI) [...] TUGI1 to1ra-me2 (TO2SI PA ZIYUNI WOME1)
      [...] next, tora (Year 252; blind with chronical disease) [...] next, tora-me, (Year 12; young woman).

Reconstruction notes

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This term is attested in the Man'yōshū only logographically, as 虎.

In the Shōsōin documents, the latter sense is attested phonographically, as a personal name variously called to1ra and to1ra-me2. See also the etymology for further attestations.

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: hổ

  1. tiger

Compounds

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