EnglishEdit

PronunciationEdit

A bridge with a skew arch (adjective sense 1) at Monkhide, Herefordshire, England, United Kingdom. The faces of the arch are not perpendicular to its abutments.
In this rectangular parallelepiped, the lines AD and B1B are skew (adjective sense 2) – although they are not parallel to each other, they do not intersect because they are in different planes.

Etymology 1Edit

The verb is derived from Middle English skeuen, skewe, skewen (to run at an angle or obliquely; to escape), from Old Northern French escuer [and other forms], variants of Old French eschuer, eschever, eschiver (to escape, flee; to avoid) (modern French esquiver (to dodge (a blow), duck; to elude, evade; to slip away; to sidestep)),[1][2] from Frankish *skiuhan (to dread; to avoid, shun), from Proto-Germanic *skiuhijaną (to frighten). The English word is cognate with Danish skæv (crooked, slanting; skew, wry), Norwegian skjev (crooked, lopsided; oblique, slanting; distorted), Saterland Frisian skeeuw (aslant, slanting; oblique; awry), and is a doublet of eschew.

The adjective and adverb are probably derived from the verb and/or from askew,[3] and the noun is derived from either the adjective or the verb.[4]

VerbEdit

skew (third-person singular simple present skews, present participle skewing, simple past and past participle skewed)

  1. (transitive) To form or shape in an oblique way; to cause to take an oblique position.
    Antonym: unskew
    • 1937, W. C. Warrell, “Machine Clothing”, in The Paper-maker and British Paper Trade Journal, volume XCIV, annual number, London: [s.n.], ISSN 0031-1154, OCLC 313422119, page 6:
      When making this joint it is important to see that the eccentric or crank is at dead-centre; if it is at the end or limit of its stroke, the rubber is skewed the full length of same; if it is at the centre, the skewing, which is the cause of wear, is halved.
    • 2009, Uday A. Bakshi; Mayuresh V. Bakshi, “Three Phase Induction Motors”, in Electrical Machines, Pune, Maharashtra: Technical Publications Pune, →ISBN, page 6-70:
      Thus asynchronous torques cannot be avoided but can be reduced by proper choice of coil span and by skewing the stator or rotor slots.
    • 2010, Philip Beadle; Mahesh Krishnan, “Enhancing the User Interface”, in Microsoft Silverlight 4 for Dummies (For Dummies), Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons, →ISBN:
      Skewing an object, as we mention at the start of this section, involves distorting the angles of the object. For example, you can create a parallelogram by skewing a square, or you can create shadow effects with skewed text (which we show you later in this chapter).
    • 2010, Ellen Finkelstein; Gurdy Leete; Mary Leete, “You are the Object Editor”, in Flash Professional CS5 & Flash Catalyst CS5, Hoboken, M.J.: Wiley Publishing, →ISBN, part II (1,000 Pictures and 1,000 Words), page 124:
      The easiest way to skew objects is to use the Free Transform tool. [...] Use the left box to skew horizontally. To skew clockwise, click the current value and then either type a value between 1 and 89 or drag up. To skew counterclockwise, click the current value and then either type a value between -1 and -89 or drag down. Then press Enter or Return.
    1. (statistics) To cause (a distribution) to be asymmetrical.
      • 2006, Andrew Stark, “Between the Normal and the Ideal”, in The Limits of Medicine: Cure or Enhancement, Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 75:
        We have looked at the obese and anorexic communities, whose conditions fall on a curve skewed towards overweight for determining the social norm of body weight and who face a golden-mean social ideal of body weight.
  2. (transitive) To bias or distort in a particular direction.
    A disproportionate number of female subjects in the study group skewed the results.
    • 2006, David Held, “Pluralism, Corporate Capitalism and the State”, in Models of Democracy, 3rd edition, Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 165:
      Accordingly, public policy can be skewed towards certain interest groups which have the best organization and most resources; it can be skewed towards certain politically powerful state agencies; and it can be skewed by intense rivalries between different sectors of government itself.
  3. (transitive, Northumbria, Yorkshire) To hurl or throw.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:throw
  4. (intransitive) To move obliquely; to move sideways, to sidle; to lie obliquely.
  5. (intransitive) To jump back or sideways in fear or surprise; to shy, as a horse.
    • 1991, Kathleen Kirkwood [pseudonym; Anita Gordon], chapter 21, in The Valiant Heart, New York, N.Y.: Jove Books, →ISBN; revised edition, [s.l.]: Anita Gordon, 2013, →ISBN:
      The horses capered. One tore its reins from her hands, burning a trail across her palms. She clung to the other as it pulled against the restraint. Frantically, Brienne moved to its side, pitching the reins over the beast's head, and jammed her foot into the stirrup. The horse skewed, drawing her along on one foot.
  6. (intransitive) To look at obliquely; to squint; hence, to look slightingly or suspiciously.
    • c. 1616–1619 (first performance), John Fletcher, “The Loyal Svbiect”, in Comedies and Tragedies [], London: [] Humphrey Robinson, [], and for Humphrey Moseley [], published 1647, OCLC 3083972, Act II, scene i, page 31, column 1:
      [C]an this durt draw us / To ſuch a ſtupid tameneſſe, that our ſervice / Neglected, and look'd lamely on, and skewd at / With a few honourable words, and this, is righted?
    • 1827, John Clare, “The Memory of Love; a Tale”, in The Shepherd’s Calendar; [], London: Published for John Taylor, [], by James Duncan, [], OCLC 33082648, page 173:
      The cows stood round her in a wondering way, / And kept the stranger with her fears at bay; / They tost their heads and snuff'd the morning gales, / Skewing at her: [...]
Derived termsEdit
TranslationsEdit
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

AdjectiveEdit

skew (not generally comparable, comparative skewer or more skew, superlative skewest or most skew)

  1. (not comparable) Neither parallel nor at right angles to a certain line; askew.
    • 1698, Jo[hn] Keill, “Of the Perpendicular Position of the Axis of the Earth to the Plane of the Ecliptick”, in An Examination of Dr. Burnet’s Theory of the Earth. [], Oxford, Oxfordshire: Printed at the Theater, OCLC 1051491277, page 78:
      [O]ur earth which makes one in that airy fleet when it eſcaped ſo narrowly being ſhipwrackt in the great Deluge, was however ſo broken and diſordered that it loſt its equal poiſe and thereupon the centre of its gravity changing, one Pole became more inclined towards the Sun and the other more removed from it, in which ſkew poſture it hath ſtood ever ſince.
    • 1745, J[ohn] T[heophilus] Desaguliers, “Lecture III”, in A Course of Experimental Philosophy, volume I, 2nd edition, W[illiam] Innys, T[homas] Longman and T. Shewell, and C. Hitch, []; and M. Senex, [], OCLC 895076240, paragraph 78, page 124:
      And this is done by cauſing the Threads of the Screw C D to take hold of the oblique or ſkew Teeth of the Wheel as c, and by continually turning the Wheel round to draw up a great Weight as W by means of the Rope which is wound on the Axis E F.
    • 1749, Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, “Of the Most Singular and Strange Adventure that Befel Don Quixote in the Whole Course of This Famous History”, in [Peter Anthony] Motteux, transl.; [John] Ozell, editor, The History of the Renowned Don Quixote de la Mancha. [], volume IV, 8th edition, London: Printed for W[illiam] Innys, [], OCLC 1102757534, part II, page 284:
      She pretended to faint, bow'd to the duke and ducheſs, and alſo to the two kings; but caſting a ſkew look upon Don Quixote, heaven forgive that hard-hearted lovely knight, ſaid ſhe, whoſe barbarity has made me an inhabitant of the other world for ought I know a thouſand years.
    • 1834, “Description of the Line of Railroad from the Entrance Station, Westland-Row, to Kingstown”, in Thirteen Views of the Dublin and Kingstown Railway, Dublin: P[hilip] Dixon Hardy, [], OCLC 18543068, page 13:
      Over Barrow-street the arch is built with what is technically called knee'd or elbow quoins; the stones being cut so as to form an oblique or skew bed on the face of the ring, and to return to a square bed within: [...]
    • [1838], Arthur Freeling, The London and Birmingham Railway Companion, [], London: Whittaker and Company, OCLC 22503337, page 178:
      Here is another of those magnificent skew bridges, sprung from the sides of the excavation. Looking at it with the face towards the tunnel, when you are about 200 yards distant, the effect is very singular, as it appears to be a portion of the entrance thereto.
    • 1898, J[ames] E[dward] Quibell, “The Earliest Tombs”, in El Kab (Egyptian Research Account, 1897), London: Bernard Quaritch, [], OCLC 56220607, paragraph 4, page 3, column 1:
      Their [the graves'] enclosure walls, within which several burials were found, were at right angles to the great wall of the town, and cut through the other graves (mastabas) which, though parallel to one another, were skew to the town walls.
    • 1961 October, Voyageur, “The Cockermouth, Keswick & Penrith Railway”, in Trains Illustrated, page 601:
      The last crossing, immediately short of Keswick station, is an inverted bowstring girder bridge with a skew span of 120ft.
    • 1992, Marianne Dieterich; Thomas Brandt, “Subjective Visual Vertical and Eye-head Coordination (Roll) with Brain Stem Lesions”, in Alain Berthoz, Werner Graf, and Pierre Paul Vidal, editors, The Head-neck Sensory Motor System, New York, N.Y.; Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, →ISBN, page 640:
      Ocular tilt reaction [...]—the triad of head tilt in roll, skew deviation of the eyes, and cyclorotation of the eyes towards the head tilt—may indicate a lesion induced deviation of the primary position of the vertical VOR [vestibulo-ocular reflex] in either peripheral otolithic or central vestibular brain stem disorders. [...] Skew deviation, a vertical divergence of the eyes, theoretically can be due to: (1) hypertropia of one eye while the other eye maintains a normal position; [...]
  2. (not comparable, geometry) Of two lines in three-dimensional space: neither intersecting nor parallel.
    • 1963, [George David] Birkhoff; [Ralph] Beatley, Basic Geometry: Answer Book[1], [New York, N.Y.]: Chelsea Publishing Company, OCLC 800779398:
      Through the given point there are two lines one of which is parallel to one of the given skew lines, while the other is parallel to the other of the given skew lines. These two "parallels" determine a plane, and the only plane, that is parallel to both the given skew lines.
  3. (comparable, statistics) Of a distribution: asymmetrical about its mean.
    • 2014, Alex Ely Kossovsky, “Saville Regression Measure”, in Benford’s Law: Theory, the General Law of Relative Quantities, and Forensic Fraud Detection Applications, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, →ISBN, section 3 (Data Compliance Tests), page 137:
      A slope value over 1 indicates that digits are skewer than the Benford condition in favor of low ones. A slope value less than 1 indicates that digits are less skewed as compared with the Benford condition.
    • 2016, Bettina Hüttenrauch, “Analysis of Data Augmentation KPIs”, in Targeting Using Augmented Data in Database Marketing: Decision Factors for Evaluating External Sources, Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler, DOI:10.1007/978-3-658-14577-4, →ISBN, section 6.4.3 (Model Lift (Uniform)), page 199:
      The skewest possible distribution is that in which every but one target value has only one element and the other target value has all the other elements.
Derived termsEdit
TranslationsEdit

AdverbEdit

skew (comparative more skew, superlative most skew)

  1. (rare) Askew, obliquely; awry.
    • [1883], W[illiam] M[atthew] Flinders Petrie, “The Outside of the Second Pyramid”, in The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, London: Field & Tuer, []; Simpkin, Marshall & Co., []; Hamilton, Adams & Co., [], OCLC 504528222, paragraph 72, page 101:
      The walls are all united at one end into one head wall; which runs 14′ skew of the Pyramid on the W.; [...]

NounEdit

skew (plural skews)

  1. Something that has an oblique or slanted position.
  2. An oblique or sideways movement.
  3. A squint or sidelong glance.
  4. A kind of wooden vane or cowl in a chimney which revolves according to the direction of the wind and prevents smoking.
  5. A piece of rock lying in a slanting position and tapering upwards which overhangs a working-place in a mine and is liable to fall.
  6. A bias or distortion in a particular direction.
    • 1832, James Scott Walker, “The Broad-green Embankment”, in An Accurate Description of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, [], 3rd edition, Liverpool: J. F. Cannell, printer, [], OCLC 1014121424, page 29:
      We now come to Whiston village and bridge, (7½ miles) and after passing under a wooden bridge, dash under one of 47 feet span, of stone and brick, with a remarkable skew.
    • 1869, F[rederick] J[ames] Furnivall, “Forewords”, in F. J. Furnivall, editor, Queene Elizabethes Achademy (by Sir Humphrey Gilbert): [] (Early English Text Society Extra Series; VIII), London: N[icholas] Trübner & Co., [], OCLC 9065674, page xvii:
      Thus one of the many skews in the Harleian Catalogue was set straight. (Don't let any one abuse the first Cataloguer of a Collection for skews. For all Catalogues (as for all Indexes) one ought to be grateful: for those without mistakes, most grateful.)
    • 1876, William John Macquorn Rankine; E. F. Bamber, “Of Masonry”, in A Manual of Civil Engineering, 11th edition, London: Charles Griffin and Company, [], OCLC 67898438, part II (Of Materials and Structures), section VIII (Of Stone and Brick Arches), paragraph 295 (Skew Arches), page 429:
      The angle of skew, or obliquity, is the angle which the axis of the archway, A A, makes with a perpendicular to the face of the arch, B C A B. The span of the archway, "on the square," as it is called (that is, the perpendicular distance between the abutments), is less than the span on the skew, or parallel to the face of the arch, in the ratio of the cosine of the obliquity to unity. It is the span on the skew which is equal to that of the corresponding symmetrical arch.
    • [1883], W[illiam] M[atthew] Flinders Petrie, “Outside of Great Pyramid”, in The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, London: Field & Tuer, []; Simpkin, Marshall & Co., []; Hamilton, Adams & Co., [], OCLC 504528222, paragraph 22, page 41:
      The mean skew of the core to the base is 1′ 33″, and its mean azimuth - 5′ 16″ to true North.
    • 1917 March, “How to Use the Drag”, in The Road Drag and How It is Used (United States Department of Agriculture Farmers’ Bulletin; no. 597), Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, OCLC 83768712, page 7:
      It is apparent that by shifting the position of the hitching link the angle of skew may be increased or diminished as the conditions require. When dragging immediately over ruts or down the center of the road after the sides have been dragged, it is usually preferable to have the hitching link at the center of the chain and to run the drag without skew.
  7. (electronics) A phenomenon in synchronous digital circuit systems (such as computers) in which the same sourced clock signal arrives at different components at different times.
    • 1989, Ivan Andonovic and Deepak Uttamchandani, editors, Principles of Modern Optical Systems, volume 1, Norwood, Mass.: Artech House, →ISBN, page 501:
      One application for which an optical filter can play an important role is that of a wideband connection with low time skew. [...] One signal, the clock, needs to be distributed to all parts of a digital circuit to synchronize its action. The necessarily long path results in the danger of the clock signal arriving at the wrong time (clock skew), limiting the maximum frequency at which the circuit may be clocked.
    • 2004, Sachin Sapatnekar, “Clocking and Clock Skew Optimization”, in Timing, New York, N.Y.; Boston, Mass.: Kluwer Academic Publishers, →ISBN, section 9.8 (Conclusion), page 205:
      Until recently, there has been a great reluctance to alter the clock network and attempt a nonzero-skew solution. However, recently, an increasing number of designers have been willing to utilize skews for performance enhancement.
  8. (statistics) A state of asymmetry in a distribution; skewness.
    • 2012, James A. Rosenthal, “Shape of Distribution”, in Statistics and Data Interpretation for Social Work, New York, N.Y.: Springer Publishing Company, →ISBN, section 5.3.1 (Characteristics), page 53:
      Skewness (skew) is the degree to which a distribution's shape departs from symmetry [...]. The greater the departure, the greater the skew. Symmetric distributions have no skew. For instance, the normal distribution is symmetric and is thus not a skewed distribution.
    • 2013, Larry Shover, “Volatility Skew: Smile or Smirk?”, in Trading Options in Turbulent Markets: Master Uncertainty through Active Volatility Management, 2nd edition, Hoboken, N.J.: Bloomberg Press, John Wiley & Sons, →ISBN, page 47:
      Skew is the contour, or the unevenness, in a distribution, the dent in the bell curve. A negative skew suggests that the left half of the normal distribution (the left side of the mean) is twisted in such a way that the prospect of achieving negative returns is superior to that of achieving large positive returns. [...] When dealing with skew, traders strive to resolve how frequently in the trading time horizon they will obtain negative returns rather than positive returns. A skew demonstrates the relationship between the movement of an underlying asset and its volatility.
Derived termsEdit
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

A skew (sense 1) at the foot of the slope of a gable is indicated by the letter “A” in this drawing.[n 1]
The stones placed over the end of a gable (left, in an inverted V-shape), or forming the coping of a gable (right) were formerly also called skews (sense 3).[n 2] Especially in Scotland, the entire coping is also known as a skew (sense 2).

From Middle English skeu, skew (stone with a sloping surface forming the slope of a gable, offset of a buttress, etc.) [and other forms], from Anglo-Norman eschu, escuwe, eskeu, or Old Northern French eschieu, eskieu, eskiu,[5] from Old French escu, escut, eschif (a shield) (modern French écu), from Latin scūtum (a shield),[6] from Proto-Indo-European *skewH- (to cover, protect) or *skey- (to cut, split).

NounEdit

skew (plural skews)

  1. (architecture) A stone at the foot of the slope of a gable, the offset of a buttress, etc., cut with a sloping surface and with a check to receive the coping stones and retain them in place; a skew-corbel.
    • 1838, James Morrison, “Appendix II. Duodecimals. Or Cross Multiplication.”, in A Concise System of Commercial Arithmetic, Adapted to Modern Practice: [], new edition, London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longmans, [], OCLC 39476494, page 210:
      How many yards of roofing and serking, in a Roof 45 feet, 8 in. long, from skew to skew; and 21 feet, 8 in. deep, from ridge to easing, including 9 inches for wall plates or double eave?
    • [1845, [John Henry Parker], “Skew, Skew-table”, in A Glossary of Terms Used in Grecian, Roman, Italian, and Gothic Architecture, volume I, 4th edition, Oxford, Oxfordshire: John Henry Parker; London: David Bogue, OCLC 951962440, page 340:
      Skew, Skew-table: the term skew is still used in the north for a stone built into the bottom of a gable or other similar situation to support the coping above [...]]
  2. (chiefly Scotland, architecture) The coping of a gable.
    • 1855, J. N., “MASON WORK”, in John C[halmers] Morton, editor, A Cyclopedia of Agriculture, Practical and Scientific, [], volume II, Glasgow; Edinburgh: Blackie and Son [], OCLC 624615198, page 389:
      Gable Copings or Skews are of various forms of section, the most common varieties being the parallel sided, Fig. 654; the weathered, or feather-edged, Fig. 655; and the saddle-backed, Fig. 656. [...] The skews at the eaves terminate in what is termed a club-skew or skew-corbel. This admits of an infinite variety of forms, according to the style of the building, but the object is the same in all—namely, to afford a support and abutment to the skew.
    • 1861, Henry Stephens; Robert Scott Burn, “Division Second—Plans of Existing Steadings”, in The Book of Farm-buildings: Their Arrangement and Construction, Edinburgh; London: William Blackwood and Sons, OCLC 2704305, 1st book (Principles of Arrangement), paragraph 276, page 50:
      The architecture of the steadings given in Plates I. to IX. is of the simplest description—plain rubble-work, with broached ashlar corners, rebates, lintels, and skews, and the roofs extending in stretches, and terminating in gables, without points to be affected by the weather. [...] A somewhat more ornamental style is given in Plate XV. of the farm-steading at Coleshill, in Berkshire, the corners and rebates being in raised work, and the skews of the gables ridged and pinnacled.
  3. (architecture, obsolete) One of the stones placed over the end of a gable, or forming the coping of a gable.
    • 1533, John Bayley, “Appendix to Part I. [The Following is Extracted from a Survey Made of the Tower, in Order to a General Repair of Its Different Buildings, in the Twenty-third Year of King Henry the Eighth, Preserved in the Chapter-house at Westminster.]”, in The History and Antiquities of the Tower of London, [] In Two Parts, part I, London: T[homas] Cadell, [], published 1821, OCLC 874355902, pages xxviii and xxix:
      [page xxviii] Here ensuithe an abstracte of the freemasons worke. [...] It'm, the walle new made on the west syde of the watergate [...] a bottres made wt harde asheler of Kent, l. foot, and in Cane asheler a skew vj. foot, [...] [page xxix] It'm, at the Juell Hows door, iij. spaces covered wt skew and crest, amontying xxxvj. fote of stone.
    • 1850, [John Henry Parker], “Skew and crest”, in A Glossary of Terms Used in Grecian, Roman, Italian, and Gothic Architecture, volume I (Text), 5th edition, Oxford, Oxfordshire: John Henry Parker; London: David Bogue, [], OCLC 68091111, page 429:
      Skew and crest: this phrase, which occurs in the specifications for the repairs at the Tower of London, (23 H. VIII.,) plainly describes the common coping of a wall which consists of a sloping or skew surface surmounted by a roll moulding by way of crest; sometimes there are two skews, separated by a set-off.
TranslationsEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ From [John Henry Parker] (1845), “Skew, Skew-table”, in A Glossary of Terms Used in Grecian, Roman, Italian, and Gothic Architecture, volume I, 4th enlarged edition, Oxford, Oxfordshire: John Henry Parker; London: David Bogue, OCLC 951962440, page 340.
  2. ^ [John Henry Parker] (1850), “Skew, Skew-table, Scuwe, Scwe”, in A Glossary of Terms Used in Grecian, Roman, Italian, and Gothic Architecture, volume I (Text), 5th enlarged edition, Oxford, Oxfordshire: John Henry Parker; London: David Bogue, OCLC 68091111, page 429.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ skeuen, v.(2)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  2. ^ skew, v.2”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 1911; “skew, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  3. ^ skew, adj. and adv.”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 1911; “skew, adj.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  4. ^ skew, n.3”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 1911; “skew, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–present.
  5. ^ skeu, n.(2)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  6. ^ skew, n.2”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 1911.

Further readingEdit


Middle EnglishEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From an earlier form of Old Norse ský, from Proto-Germanic *skiwją; doublet of sky.

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

skew (plural skewes)

  1. sky, air
  2. (rare) cloud
ReferencesEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old French escu, from Latin scūtum.

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

skew (plural skewes)

  1. A segment of carved stone to cover a gable with.
ReferencesEdit