U+5B89, 安
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5B89

[U+5B88]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5B8A]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 40, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 十女 (JV), four-corner 30404, composition )

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 282, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7072
  • Dae Jaweon: page 552, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 913, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+5B89

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
𠕷
𭑨
𡚴
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
  • (Gan)

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意): (house) + (a woman or a kneeling person) – person in a kneeling position sitting on the heels at home.

Etymology edit

calm; peaceful
A parallel stem is (OC *qeːns, “to be at ease; to rest”) (Wang, 1982; Schuessler, 2007).
Cognate with (OC *qaːns, “to push down with hand”), an exoactive derivative, literally “to cause to be settled; calmed” (ibid.).
Starostin reconstructs Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔɨāɫ (rest), comparing it to Mizo âwl (to rest) (and also noting Dhimal [script needed] (el-ka, good)). STEDT, however, traces the Mizo word to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-grwal ~ *ʔwal (finish, loose, relax) and did not list (OC *qaːn) among its comparanda: namely (OC *ɦŋoːn), (OC *ɢʷaːnʔ), (OC *qʰʷan, *qʰʷanʔ), (OC *ɢʷans, *ɢʷan).
where; how
Cognate with (OC *qaː, “how”) and (OC *qran, *qan, “where; how”), the latter of which is probably a variant of (OC *qaːn).

Pronunciation edit


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • an - literary;
  • oaⁿ - vernacular.
Note:
  • ang1 - literary;
  • uan1 - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /an⁵⁵/
    Harbin /an⁴⁴/
    /nan⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /nan²¹/
    Jinan /ŋã²¹³/
    Qingdao /ɣã²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /an²⁴/
    Xi'an /ŋã²¹/
    Xining /nã⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /an⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ɛ̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /an⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /ŋan⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /ŋan⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /ŋan⁵⁵/
    /an⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ã̠⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /aŋ³¹/
    Hefei /ʐæ̃²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɣæ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /ŋɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ŋæ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ø⁵³/
    Suzhou /ø⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /ʔẽ̞³³/
    Wenzhou /y³³/
    Hui Shexian /ŋɛ³¹/
    Tunxi /uːə¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ŋan³³/
    Xiangtan /ŋan³³/
    Gan Nanchang /ŋɵn⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /on⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /on²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /ɔn⁵³/
    Nanning /ɔn⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /ɔn⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /an⁵⁵/
    /uã⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /aŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /uiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /aŋ³³/
    /uã³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /aŋ²³/
    /ua²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (61)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter 'an
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔɑn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔɑn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔɑn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔan/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔɑn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɑn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔɑn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ān
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    on1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    ān ān ān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ 'an › ‹ 'an › ‹ 'an ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ʔ]ˁa[n]/ /*[ʔ]ˁa[n]/ /*[ʔ]ˁa[n]/
    English peace(ful) how 安息 Ānxī (Iranian country in the western regions, W. Hàn; from Aršaka = Arsaces, founder of the Arsacid dynasty)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 11
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaːn/

    Definitions edit

    1. calm; peaceful; tranquil; quiet
        ―  ānníng  ―  peaceful; tranquil
        ―  ānshuì  ―  to sleep peacefully
        ―  bù'ān  ―  uneasy; disturbed
    2. comfortable; at ease
        ―  ān  ―  easy and comfortable
    3. safe; secure
      然無恙然无恙  ―  ānránwúyàng  ―  safe and sound
      轉危為转危为  ―  zhuǎnwēiwéi'ān  ―  avert a danger
    4. to calm; to pacify
        ―  ānshén  ―  to calm the nerves
      除暴  ―  chúbào'ānliáng  ―  to get rid of bullies and bring peace to good people
        ―  Tiān'ānmén  ―  Tiananmen, Beijing; literally "the gate of Heaven's peacemaking"
    5. to feel satisfied with
      於現狀于现状  ―  ānyúxiànzhuàng  ―  to be content with the status quo (and unwilling to progress)
      貧樂道贫乐道  ―  ānpínyuèdào  ―  to be happy to live a simple and virtuous life
    6. to find a place for; to plant
        ―  ānchā  ―  to place (somebody) in a certain position
      家落戶家落户  ―  ānjiāluòhù  ―  to settle in a new place
    7. to fit; to install
      電燈电灯  ―  ān diàndēng  ―  to install electric lighting
    8. to cherish; to harbour
    9. to confer (a title); to bestow; to put (the blame on someone)
      隨便罪名 [MSC, trad.]
      随便罪名 [MSC, simp.]
      suíbiàn gěi tā ān ge zuìmíng [Pinyin]
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    10. (Cantonese) ounce
      [Cantonese]  ―  ng5 on1 naai5 [Jyutping]  ―  five ounces of milk
    11. (literary) where
    12. (literary) how; why
    13. (physics) Short for 安培 (ānpéi, “ampere”).
    14. Short for 安非他命 (ānfēitāmìng, “amphetamine”).
        ―  xī'ān  ―  to use amphetamine (illegally)
    15. a surname
      祿  ―  Ān Lùshān  ―  An Lushan
      1. (historical) a surname. Given to people from the Arsacid or Parthian Empire (安息 or 安國安国)
    16. Short for 安那其主義安那其主义 (ānnàqí zhǔyì, “anarchism”).

    Synonyms edit

    • (ounce):

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (あん) (an)
    • Korean: 안(安) (an)
    • Vietnamese: an ()

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Derived terms edit

    Etymology edit

    Kanji in this term
    あん
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    Sino-Japanese.

    Affix edit

    (あん) (an

    1. calm; peaceful
    2. tranquil
    3. safe; secure
    4. easy; simple
    5. (chemistry) ammonium

    Derived terms edit

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

    Pronunciation edit

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 편안 (pyeonan an))

    1. Hanja form? of (peace, peacefulness).

    Compounds edit

    Tày edit

    Adjective edit

    (an)

    1. Nôm form of an (peaceful).

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: an[1][2][3][4][5], yên[4][5]
    : Nôm readings: yên[1][2][3][6][4][7], an[1][2][4][7], án[1], ăn[1]

    1. chữ Hán form of an (safe; secure).
    2. chữ Hán form of yên (calm; peaceful).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    Zhuang edit

    Classifier edit

    1. Alternative form of 𬻹 (Sawndip form of aen)

    References edit

    • 古壮字字典 [Dictionary of Old Zhuang Characters], Guangxi: Ethnic Publishing House (广西民族出版社), 2012, →ISBN, page 1