U+6D41, 流
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6D41

[U+6D40]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6D42]
U+F9CA, 流
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9CA

[U+F9C9]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9CB]

U+FA97, 流
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA97

[U+FA96]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA98]
流 U+2F902, 流
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F902
海
[U+2F901]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 浩
[U+2F903]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
Mainland China, Japan and Korea
 
Stroke order
Taiwan
 

Alternative forms edit

  • In mainland China (based on Xin Zixing character form), Japanese kanji, Korean hanja and Vietnamese Nôm, the upper right component 𠫓 is written (4 strokes) while the bottom right stroke is written with an ending hook which is the historical form found in the Kangxi Dictionary.
  • In Taiwan and Hong Kong (based on Big5 character form), the upper right component 𠫓 is written (3 strokes) while the bottom right stroke is written without the ending hook.
  • Three CJK compatibility ideographs exist for this character:
    • U+F9CA corresponds to a duplicate character found in South Korea's KS X 1001 character set.
    • U+FA97 corresponds to an alternative form used in North Korea which is similar to the character used in Taiwan/Hong Kong.
    • U+2F902 corresponds to an alternative form used in Taiwan which is similar to the character used in mainland China/Japan/Korea but the bottom right stroke is written without the ending hook.

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 85, +7, 9 strokes in traditional Chinese, 10 strokes in mainland China and Japanese and Korean, cangjie input 水卜戈山 (EYIU), four-corner 34113, composition (GJKV or U+F9CA or U+2F902) or 𠫓丿(HT or U+FA97))

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 623, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17572
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1019, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1631, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+6D41

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ru) : semantic (water) + phonetic ().

Etymology edit

Cognate with Tibetan རྒྱུ་ (rgyu, to move, to go, to wander) (Hill, 2019).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • lâu - vernacular;
  • liǔ - literary.
Note:
  • làu - vernacular;
  • liù - literary.
Note:
  • lâu - vernacular;
  • liû - literary.
Note:
  • lao5 - vernacular;
  • liu5 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ljuw
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɨu/
Pan
Wuyun
/liu/
Shao
Rongfen
/liəu/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/luw/
Li
Rong
/liu/
Wang
Li
/lĭəu/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯ə̯u/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
liú
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
lau4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
liú
Middle
Chinese
‹ ljuw ›
Old
Chinese
/*ru/
English flow (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 8335
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ru/
Notes

Definitions edit

  1. to flow
      ―  liúhàn  ―  to sweat
      ―  liúlèi  ―  to cry; to let tears flow
      ―  liúxuè  ―  to bleed
  2. to drift; to wander
      ―  liúlián  ―  to linger; to be reluctant to leave
  3. class; grade
      ―  liú  ―  first class; top grade
  4. (of water, electricity, other fluids) current; flow; stream
      ―  liú  ―  airflow
      ―  diànliú  ―  electric current
  5. to spread; to scatter; to disseminate
    Synonyms: 留傳留传 (liúchuán), 散佈散布 (sànbù)
      ―  liúyán  ―  rumors; gossip
      ―  liúfāng  ―  to leave a good reputation
  6. (physics) Short for 流明 (liúmíng, “lumen”).
  7. (mathematics) flow
  8. (computing) stream
  9. (Cantonese, Hakka) of poor quality
    [Cantonese]  ―  lau4 je5 [Jyutping]  ―  poor-quality goods
  10. (Cantonese) fake; ingenuine
    Antonym: (gin1) (Cantonese)
    [Cantonese]  ―  lau4 liu6-2 [Jyutping]  ―  false information; fake news

Compounds edit

Japanese edit

Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1][2][3]

流󠄂
+&#xE0102;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
 
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

Kanji edit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC ljuw).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(りゅう) (ryūりう (riu)?

  1. the flow of water or something like water
  2. art forms, methods, styles, and techniques peculiar to a person or house

Affix edit

(りゅう) (ryūりう (riu)?

  1. current, flow, stream, waterflow
  2. flowing, washing
  3. spread

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ 白川静 (Shirakawa Shizuka) (2014) “”, in 字通 (Jitsū)[1] (in Japanese), popular edition, Tōkyō: Heibonsha, →ISBN
  2. ^ Haga, Gōtarō (1914) 漢和大辞書 [The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Fourth edition, Tōkyō: Kōbunsha, →DOI, page 1273 (paper), page 687 (digital)
  3. ^ Shōundō Henshūjo, editor (1927), 新漢和辞典 [The New Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Ōsaka: Shōundō, →DOI, page 752 (paper), page 389 (digital)
  4. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC ljuw). Recorded as Middle Korean (lyu) (Yale: lyu) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 흐를 (heureul ryu), South Korea 흐를 (heureul yu))

  1. Hanja form? of / (flow).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: lưu[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: lưu[1][2]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References edit