Contents

TranslingualEdit

shinjitai

simplified

traditional

EtymologyEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *hmlɯːʔ): semantic  ‎(water) + phonetic  ‎(OC *mɯːʔ)

The Old Chinese word is believed to have been pronounced very much like 每, with an m- initial. Baxter-Sagart reconstruct the Old Chinese as *m̥ˤəʔ; compare with 每 *mˤəʔ.

Appears with (2 dots) in Chinese, yielding , but with simplified form (1 cross stroke) in Japanese shinjitai, yielding = 氵 + . These are however encoded with the same Unicode character – see Han unification.

Stroke order

Han characterEdit

(radical 85 +7 in Chinese, 水+6 in Japanese, in Chinese 10 strokes, in Japanese 9 strokes, cangjie input 水人田卜 (EOWY), four-corner 38157, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 625, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17450
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1023, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1627, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6D77

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xai²¹⁴/
Harbin /xai²¹³/
Tianjin /xai¹³/
Jinan /xɛ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /xɛ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /xai⁵³/
Xi'an /xai⁵³/
Xining /xɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /xɛ⁵³/
Lanzhou /xɛ⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /xai⁵¹/
Wuhan /xai⁴²/
Chengdu /xai⁵³/
Guiyang /xai⁴²/
Kunming /xæ⁵³/
Nanjing /xae²¹²/
Hefei /xe̞²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /xai⁵³/
Pingyao /xæ⁵³/
Hohhot /xɛ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /he³⁵/
Suzhou /he̞⁵¹/
Hangzhou /he̞⁵³/
Wenzhou /he³⁵/
Hui Shexian /xɛ³⁵/
Tunxi /xuə³¹/
Xiang Changsha /xai⁴¹/
Xiangtan /xai⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /hai²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hoi³¹/
Taoyuan /hoi³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔi³⁵/
Nanning /hɔi³⁵/
Hong Kong /hɔi³⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hai⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hai³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xuɛ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hai⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hai²¹³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (32)
Final: (41)
Tone: Rising (X)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: hǎi
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/hʌiX/ /həiX/ /xɒiX/ /həjX/ /xᴀiX/ /xɒiX/ /xɑ̆iX/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
hǎi ‹ xojX › /*m̥ˤəʔ (dialect *m̥ˤ- > x-)/ sea

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
9283 0 /*hmlɯːʔ/

NounEdit

  1. sea, ocean

Proper nounEdit

  1. A surname​. Hai (mainland China, Taiwan), Hoi (Hong Kong)

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

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KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. sea
  2. ocean

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
うみ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.

May derive from a compound of ‎(u, stem indicating “ocean”; compare ‎(uo, fish), ‎(ushio, salt water)) + ‎(mi, water).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana うみ, romaji umi)

  1. sea, ocean
Usage notesEdit

This is the most common general term in modern Japanese for sea or ocean.

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
わた
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.

May be related to Goguryeo 波旦 ‎(padan). Possibly cognate with Korean 바다 ‎(bada, ocean, sea).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana わた, romaji wata)

  1. (obsolete) sea, ocean
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun'yomi

Either cognate with ‎(mi, water), or an abbreviation of umi above.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji mi)

  1. (obsolete) sea, ocean
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  • 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(hae) (hangeul , revised hae, McCune-Reischauer hae, Yale hay)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

CompoundsEdit


MulamEdit

NounEdit

‎(hai3)

  1. sea

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hải, hẩy, hấy)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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