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U+4E7E, 乾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E7E

[U+4E7D]
CJK Unified Ideographs 乿
[U+4E7F]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 5, +10, 11 strokes, cangjie input 十十人弓 (JJON), four-corner 48417, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 84, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 204
  • Dae Jaweon: page 172, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 56, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4E7E

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kaːn, *ɡran
*kaːn
*kaːns
*kaːns
*ɡaːn
*ɡaːn
*ɡaːn, *ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*qʷaːd

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːn, *ɡran): phonetic  (OC *kaːns) + semantic .

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp. *
variant forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kan (to dry; to dry up). Cognate with Burmese ခန်း (hkan:, to dry up; to evaporate).

The sense “lacking sweetness” is a semantic loan from French sec or English dry.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • koaⁿ/koa - vernacular;
  • kan - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location 乾 (旱)
    Mandarin Beijing /kan⁵⁵/
    Harbin /kan⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /kan²¹/
    Jinan /kã²¹³/
    Qingdao /kã²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /kan²⁴/
    Xi'an /kã²¹/
    Xining /kã⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /kan⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /kɛ̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /kan⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /kan⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /kan⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /kan⁵⁵/
    Kunming /kã̠⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /kaŋ³¹/
    Hefei /kæ̃²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /kæ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /kɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /kæ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /kø⁵³/
    Suzhou /kø⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /kẽ̞³³/
    Wenzhou /ky³³/
    Hui Shexian /kɛ³¹/
    Tunxi /kuə¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /kan³³/
    Xiangtan /kan³³/
    Gan Nanchang /kɵn⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kon⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kon²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /kɔn⁵³/
    Nanning /kɔn⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kɔn⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kan⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /kaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (61)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɑn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kɑn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kɑn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kan/
    Li
    Rong
    /kɑn/
    Wang
    Li
    /kɑn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kɑn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    gān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kan ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]ˤar/
    English dry

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 3698
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kaːn/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. dry; moistureless; waterless; arid
      喉嚨 / 喉咙  ―  Wǒ hóulóng hěn gān.  ―  My throat feels dry.
    2. to dry; to exhaust
    3. to neglect; to snub
    4. dried up; exhausted; drained
    5. (of voice) dry and coarse
    6. dried-up food
    7. adopted; adoptive; foster
    8. in vain; for nothing
    9. falsely; superficially
    10. not sweet; lacking sweetness

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of (“dry”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan 乾燥
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Yangjiang
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Zhuolan (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Penang
    Chaozhou
    Wu Suzhou
    Wenzhou
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    simp. and trad.
    variant forms

    From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-ka-n (heaven; sky; sun). Cognate with Tibetan མཁའ (mkha'), ནམ་མཁའ (nam mkha', sky; heaven).

    PronunciationEdit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (30)
    Final () (79)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɡˠiᴇn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɡᵚiɛn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɡiæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /gian/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɡjɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɡĭɛn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /gi̯ɛn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qián
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qián
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ gjen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɡ](r)ar/
    English heaven; heavenly

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 3709
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡran/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. first of the eight trigrams (bagua) used in Taoist cosmology, represented by the symbol
    2. (figuratively) sky; heaven
        ―  qiándào  ―  ways of heaven; natural law
    3. (figuratively) emperor; monarch
    4. (figuratively) sun
    5. (figuratively) northwest
    6. (figuratively) man; male
    7. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. northwest
    2. dehydrate
    3. arid
    4. drought
    5. imbibe
    6. paradise
    7. the emperor

    ReadingsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    (inu) +‎ (i)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana いぬい, rōmaji inui, historical hiragana いぬゐ)

    1. (obsolete) northwest

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana いぬい, rōmaji Inui, historical hiragana いぬゐ)

    1. A surname​.

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (geon, gan) (hangeul , , revised geon, gan, McCune–Reischauer kŏn, kan)

    1. (하늘 건, haneul-): sky
    2. (건괘 건, geon-gwae-): or the 1st of the Eight Trigrams (☰☱☲☳☴☵☶☷ or 八卦 (팔괘, palgwae))
    3. (임금 건, im-geum-): king
    4. (마를 건, mareul-): to be dry

    SynonymsEdit

    • (, cheon)
    • (, gan) (translingual; simplified hanzi for 乾)

    AntonymsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    八卦 (팔괘, palgwae)

      7+0=111+000 (U+2630)* sky
      6+1=110+001 (U+2631) marsh
      5+2=101+010 (U+2632) fire
      4+3=100+011 (U+2633) thunder
      3+4=011+100 (U+2634) wind
      2+5=010+101 (U+2635) water
      1+6=001+110 (U+2636) mountain
      0+7=000+111 (U+2637) earth

      [*] Decimal pair=Binary pair (Codepoint). (The solid bar "—" of the Trigrams may be assigned to the binary number "1", while the split bar "--" to "0".)


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (kiền, cạn, can, càn, khan, gàn)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit