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U+4E7E, 乾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E7E

[U+4E7D]
CJK Unified Ideographs 乿
[U+4E7F]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 5 +10, 11 strokes, cangjie input 十十人弓 (JJON), four-corner 48417, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 84, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 204
  • Dae Jaweon: page 172, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 56, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4E7E

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
kaːn, *ɡran
kaːn
kaːns
kaːns
ɡaːn
ɡaːn
ɡaːn, *ɡaːns
ɡaːns
ɡaːns
ɡaːns
qʷaːd

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːn, *ɡran): phonetic  (OC *kaːns) + semantic .

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kan (to dry; to dry up). Cognate with Burmese ခန်း (hkan:, to dry up; to evaporate).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • kan - literary;
  • koaⁿ/koa - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 乾 (旱)
Mandarin Beijing /kan⁵⁵/
Harbin /kan⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kan²¹/
Jinan /kã²¹³/
Qingdao /kã²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kan²⁴/
Xi'an /kã²¹/
Xining /kã⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kan⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kɛ̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /kan⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kan⁵⁵/
Chengdu /kan⁵⁵/
Guiyang /kan⁵⁵/
Kunming /kã̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /kaŋ³¹/
Hefei /kæ̃²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kæ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /kɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /kæ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kø⁵³/
Suzhou /kø⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /kẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ky³³/
Hui Shexian /kɛ³¹/
Tunxi /kuə¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /kan³³/
Xiangtan /kan³³/
Gan Nanchang /kɵn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kon⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kon²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɔn⁵³/
Nanning /kɔn⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kɔn⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kan⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (61)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɑn/
Pan
Wuyun
/kɑn/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɑn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kan/
Li
Rong
/kɑn/
Wang
Li
/kɑn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɑn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gān
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gān
Middle
Chinese
‹ kan ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ˤar/
English dry

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 3698
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kaːn/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. dry; moistureless; waterless; arid
    喉嚨 / 喉咙  ―  Wǒ hóulóng hěn gān.  ―  My throat feels dry.
  2. to dry; to exhaust
  3. to neglect; to snub
  4. dried up; exhausted; drained
  5. (of voice) dry and coarse
  6. dried-up food
  7. adopted; adoptive; foster
  8. in vain; for nothing
  9. falsely; superficially

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-ka-n (heaven; sky; sun). Cognate with Tibetan མཁའ (mkha'), ནམ་མཁའ (nam mkha', sky; heaven).

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 乾 (旱)
Mandarin Beijing /kan⁵⁵/
Harbin /kan⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kan²¹/
Jinan /kã²¹³/
Qingdao /kã²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kan²⁴/
Xi'an /kã²¹/
Xining /kã⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kan⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kɛ̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /kan⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kan⁵⁵/
Chengdu /kan⁵⁵/
Guiyang /kan⁵⁵/
Kunming /kã̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /kaŋ³¹/
Hefei /kæ̃²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kæ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /kɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /kæ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kø⁵³/
Suzhou /kø⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /kẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ky³³/
Hui Shexian /kɛ³¹/
Tunxi /kuə¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /kan³³/
Xiangtan /kan³³/
Gan Nanchang /kɵn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kon⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kon²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɔn⁵³/
Nanning /kɔn⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kɔn⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kan⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (30)
Final () (79)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () Chongniu III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɡˠiᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɡᵚiɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɡiæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/gian/
Li
Rong
/ɡjɛn/
Wang
Li
/ɡĭɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/gi̯ɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
qián
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
qián
Middle
Chinese
‹ gjen ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ](r)ar/
English heaven; heavenly

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 3709
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡran/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. first of the eight trigrams (bagua) used in Taoist cosmology, represented by the symbol
  2. (figuratively) sky; heaven
      ―  qiándào  ―  ways of heaven; natural law
  3. (figuratively) emperor; monarch
  4. (figuratively) sun
  5. (figuratively) northwest
  6. (figuratively) man; male
  7. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. northwest
  2. dehydrate
  3. arid
  4. drought
  5. imbibe
  6. paradise
  7. the emperor

ReadingsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana いぬい, rōmaji inui, historical hiragana いぬゐ)

  1. (obsolete) northwest

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana いぬい, rōmaji Inui, historical hiragana いぬゐ)

  1. A surname​.

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(geon, gan) (hangeul , , revised geon, gan, McCune-Reischauer kŏn, kan)

  1. (하늘 건, haneul-): sky
  2. (건괘 건, geon-gwae-): or the 1st of the Eight Trigrams (☰☱☲☳☴☵☶☷ or 八卦 (팔괘, palgwae))
  3. (임금 건, im-geum-): king
  4. (마를 건, mareul-): to be dry

SynonymsEdit

  • (, cheon)
  • (, gan) (translingual; simplified hanzi for 乾)

AntonymsEdit

See alsoEdit

八卦 (팔괘, palgwae)

7+0=111+000 (U+2630)* sky
6+1=110+001 (U+2631) marsh
5+2=101+010 (U+2632) fire
4+3=100+011 (U+2633) thunder
3+4=011+100 (U+2634) wind
2+5=010+101 (U+2635) water
1+6=001+110 (U+2636) mountain
0+7=000+111 (U+2637) earth

[*] Decimal pair=Binary pair (Codepoint). (The solid bar "—" of the Trigrams may be assigned to the binary number "1", while the split bar "--" to "0".)


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(kiền, cạn, can, càn, khan, gàn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit