Open main menu
See also: , , and
U+4E7E, 乾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E7E

[U+4E7D]
CJK Unified Ideographs 乿
[U+4E7F]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 5, +10, 11 strokes, cangjie input 十十人弓 (JJON), four-corner 48417, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 84, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 204
  • Dae Jaweon: page 172, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 56, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4E7E

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kaːn, *ɡran
*kaːn
*kaːns
*kaːns
*ɡaːn
*ɡaːn
*ɡaːn, *ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*ɡaːns
*qʷaːd

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kaːn, *ɡran): phonetic  (OC *kaːns) + semantic .

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp. *
variant forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kan (to dry; to dry up). Cognate with Burmese ခန်း (hkan:, to dry up; to evaporate).

The sense “lacking sweetness” is a semantic loan from French sec or English dry.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • koaⁿ/koa - vernacular;
  • kan - literary.
Note: guan1 - “dried-up food” (e.g. 餅乾).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 乾 (旱)
Mandarin Beijing /kan⁵⁵/
Harbin /kan⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kan²¹/
Jinan /kã²¹³/
Qingdao /kã²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kan²⁴/
Xi'an /kã²¹/
Xining /kã⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kan⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kɛ̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /kan⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kan⁵⁵/
Chengdu /kan⁵⁵/
Guiyang /kan⁵⁵/
Kunming /kã̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /kaŋ³¹/
Hefei /kæ̃²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kæ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /kɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /kæ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kø⁵³/
Suzhou /kø⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /kẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ky³³/
Hui Shexian /kɛ³¹/
Tunxi /kuə¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /kan³³/
Xiangtan /kan³³/
Gan Nanchang /kɵn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kon⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kon²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɔn⁵³/
Nanning /kɔn⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kɔn⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kan⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /kaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (61)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɑn/
Pan
Wuyun
/kɑn/
Shao
Rongfen
/kɑn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kan/
Li
Rong
/kɑn/
Wang
Li
/kɑn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɑn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gān
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gān
Middle
Chinese
‹ kan ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ˁar/
English dry

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 3698
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kaːn/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. dry; moistureless; waterless; arid
    喉嚨 / 喉咙  ―  Wǒ hóulóng hěn gān.  ―  My throat feels dry.
  2. to dry; to exhaust
  3. to neglect; to snub
  4. (colloquial) to drain one's glass; bottoms up
  5. dried up; exhausted; drained
  6. (of voice) dry and coarse
  7. dried-up food
  8. adopted; adoptive; foster
  9. in vain; for nothing
  10. falsely; superficially
  11. not sweet; lacking sweetness

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of (“dry”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan 乾燥
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Hsinchu (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Penang
Chaozhou
Wu Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

simp. and trad.
variant forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-ka-n (heaven; sky; sun). Cognate with Tibetan མཁའ (mkha'), ནམ་མཁའ (nam mkha', sky; heaven).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • kiang5 - Shantou;
  • kiêng5 - Chaozhou.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (30)
    Final () (79)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () Chongniu III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɡˠiᴇn/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɡᵚiɛn/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɡiæn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /gian/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɡjɛn/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɡĭɛn/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /gi̯ɛn/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qián
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qián
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ gjen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɡ](r)ar/
    English heaven; heavenly

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 3709
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡran/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. first of the eight trigrams (bagua) used in Taoist cosmology, represented by the symbol
    2. (figuratively) sky; heaven
        ―  qiándào  ―  ways of heaven; natural law
    3. (figuratively) emperor; monarch
    4. (figuratively) sun
    5. (figuratively) northwest
    6. (figuratively) man; male
    7. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. northwest
    2. dehydrate
    3. arid
    4. drought
    5. imbibe
    6. paradise
    7. the emperor

    ReadingsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    (inu) +‎ (i)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana いぬい, rōmaji inui, historical hiragana いぬゐ)

    1. (obsolete) northwest

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana いぬい, rōmaji Inui, historical hiragana いぬゐ)

    1. A surname​.

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (geon, gan) (hangeul , , revised geon, gan, McCune–Reischauer kŏn, kan)

    1. (하늘 건, haneul-): sky
    2. (건괘 건, geon-gwae-): or the 1st of the Eight Trigrams (☰☱☲☳☴☵☶☷ or 八卦 (팔괘, palgwae))
    3. (임금 건, im-geum-): king
    4. (마를 건, mareul-): to be dry

    SynonymsEdit

    • (, cheon)
    • (, gan) (translingual; simplified hanzi for 乾)

    AntonymsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    八卦 (팔괘, palgwae)

      7+0=111+000 (U+2630)* sky
      6+1=110+001 (U+2631) marsh
      5+2=101+010 (U+2632) fire
      4+3=100+011 (U+2633) thunder
      3+4=011+100 (U+2634) wind
      2+5=010+101 (U+2635) water
      1+6=001+110 (U+2636) mountain
      0+7=000+111 (U+2637) earth

      [*] Decimal pair=Binary pair (Codepoint). (The solid bar "—" of the Trigrams may be assigned to the binary number "1", while the split bar "--" to "0".)


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (kiền, cạn, can, càn, khan, gàn)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit