Open main menu
See also: Pena, péna, pená, penà, peña, pěna, and pę́na

Contents

CatalanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Occitan pena, from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

pena f (plural penes)

  1. punishment, penalty
  2. grief, sorrow, pain
  3. a shame, a pity

Derived termsEdit

VerbEdit

pena

  1. third-person singular present indicative form of penar
  2. second-person singular imperative form of penar

GalicianEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Galician and Old Portuguese pena (displacing pẽa), from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ, penalty, fine, bloodmoney), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷoynéh₂.

NounEdit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment, penalty
    • 1370, Enrique Cal Pardo (ed.), Colección diplomática medieval do arquivo da catedral de Mondoñedo. Santiago: Consello da Cultura Galega, page 103:
      o bispo et esse Ferrand Bonome por si et por sa moller se obligaron su pena de mill mor. da boa moneda para gardaren a vnna parte aa outra todas estas cousas
      the bishop and this Fernando Bonome, for him and for his wife, compromised themselves, under a penalty of a thousand coins, to respect this agreement
    Synonym: castigo
  2. pain; sadness
    • 1370, Ramón Lorenzo (ed.), Crónica troiana, A Coruña: Fundación Barrié, page 731:
      en guisa que a sua alma ouuese bẽeyçóm et nõ andase en pena
      so that his soul would be blessed and wouldn't wander in pain
    Synonyms: dor, tristura, mágoa
Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Galician and Old Portuguese pena, from Latin pinna (feather, wing), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to fly).

NounEdit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. vanes or blades of a water wheel
    Synonym: aspa
  2. (archaic) feather
    Synonym: pluma
  3. (archaic) pelt
    • 1409, J. L. Pensado Tomé (ed.), Rufus, Jordanus: Tratado de Albeitaria. Santiago de Compostela: Centro Ramón Piñeiro, page 133:
      coito todo ensenbra con pena de gallina
      all of that boiled together with a hen pelt
    Synonym: pelica
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

 
Pena do Guerreiro (rock known as "the Warrior"), Carnota, Galicia

Either from Latin pinna ("feather, wing"; then "merlon, fortress"; then, hypothetically, "rock"), or from Proto-Celtic *kʷennom (head).[1][2]

NounEdit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. boulder, rock
    • 1370, Ramón Lorenzo (ed.), Crónica troiana, A Coruña: Fundación Barrié, page 688:
      alý se leuãtara hũa pena, que era en çima moy chãa et moyto alta contra o çeo
      there a rock stood, which was very flat at the top and which rose very high
    Synonym: penedo
  2. (archaic) hill, hillock
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • pena” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006-2012.
  • pena” in Xavier Varela Barreiro & Xavier Gómez Guinovart: Corpus Xelmírez - Corpus lingüístico da Galicia medieval. SLI / Grupo TALG / ILG, 2006-2016.
  • pena” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006-2013.
  • "pena" in Santamarina, Antón (coord.): Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega. <http://ilg.usc.es/TILG/>
  • pena” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.
  1. ^ Cf. Coromines, Joan; Pascual, José A. (1991–1997). Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico. Madrid: Gredos, s.v. peña.
  2. ^ García Trabazo, José Virgilio (2016), “Prelatin Toponymy of Asturies: a critical review in a historical-comparative perspective”, in Lletres Asturianes[1], issue 115, retrieved 14 June 2018, pages 51-71

Guinea-Bissau CreoleEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Portuguese pena. Cognates with Kabuverdianu péna.

NounEdit

pena

  1. feather

IndonesianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Dutch pen

NounEdit

pena (plural pena-pena, first-person possessive penaku, second-person possessive penamu, third-person possessive penanya)

  1. pen (writing utensil)

SynonymsEdit


ItalianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈpena/, [ˈpeː.na]
  • Hyphenation: pé‧na

NounEdit

pena f (plural pene)

  1. sorrow
  2. trouble
  3. worry, anxiety
  4. pity
  5. sentence, penalty, punishment
  6. pain

SynonymsEdit

Related termsEdit

VerbEdit

pena

  1. inflection of penare:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

AnagramsEdit


LadinEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

NounEdit

pena f (plural penes)

  1. penalty, punishment

LatinEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

pēna f (genitive pēnae); first declension

  1. Alternative form of poena [Mediaeval–early New Latin]

DeclensionEdit

First declension.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative pēna pēnae
Genitive pēnae pēnārum
Dative pēnae pēnīs
Accusative pēnam pēnās
Ablative pēnā pēnīs
Vocative pēna pēnae

ReferencesEdit


Old OccitanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

NounEdit

pena f (oblique plural penas, nominative singular pena, nominative plural penas)

  1. pain; suffering

SynonymsEdit

DescendantsEdit


PortugueseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Portuguese pena (displacing pẽa), from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ, penalty, fine, bloodmoney), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷoynéh₂.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment
  2. pain; sadness
SynonymsEdit

InterjectionEdit

pena

  1. pity (what a shame, what a pity)
Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Portuguese pena, from Latin penna and pinna, from Proto-Italic *petnā (feather, wing), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to fly).

 
pena

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. feather
  2. quill (pen made from a feather)
  3. (dated) Alternative form of penha
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

pena

  1. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present indicative of penar
  2. second-person singular (tu, sometimes used with você) affirmative imperative of penar

Serbo-CroatianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *pěna.

NounEdit

pȅna f (Cyrillic spelling пе̏на)

  1. foam

DeclensionEdit


SlovakEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *pěna.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

pena f (genitive singular peny, nominative plural peny, genitive plural pien, declension pattern of žena)

  1. foam

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit

  • pena in Slovak dictionaries at korpus.sk

SloveneEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *pěna.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

pẹ́na f

  1. foam

InflectionEdit

Feminine, a-stem
nominative péna
genitive péne
singular
nominative péna
accusative péno
genitive péne
dative péni
locative péni
instrumental péno

SpanishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Spanish pena, from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈpena/
  • Hyphenation: pe‧na

NounEdit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment
  2. pain, sadness
  3. trouble
  4. (Latin America) embarrassment
  5. pity

SynonymsEdit

Related termsEdit

VerbEdit

pena

  1. Informal second-person singular () affirmative imperative form of penar.
  2. Formal second-person singular (usted) present indicative form of penar.
  3. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present indicative form of penar.

TurkishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Italian penna.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈpɛnɑ/
  • Hyphenation: pe‧na

NounEdit

pena (definite accusative penayı, plural penalar)

  1. (music) plectrum

DeclensionEdit

Inflection
Nominative pena
Definite accusative penayı
Singular Plural
Nominative pena penalar
Definite accusative penayı penaları
Dative penaya penalara
Locative penada penalarda
Ablative penadan penalardan
Genitive penanın penaların

SynonymsEdit


VenetianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin paene. Compare Italian appena.

AdverbEdit

pena

  1. hardly