See also: Pena, péna, pená, penà, peña, pěna, and pę́na

CatalanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Occitan pena, from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

pena f (plural penes)

  1. punishment, penalty
  2. grief, sorrow, pain
  3. a shame, a pity

Derived termsEdit

VerbEdit

pena

  1. third-person singular present indicative form of penar
  2. second-person singular imperative form of penar

GalicianEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Galician and Old Portuguese pena (displacing pẽa), from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ, penalty, fine, bloodmoney), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷoynéh₂.

NounEdit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment, penalty
    • 1370, Enrique Cal Pardo (ed.), Colección diplomática medieval do arquivo da catedral de Mondoñedo. Santiago: Consello da Cultura Galega, page 103:
      o bispo et esse Ferrand Bonome por si et por sa moller se obligaron su pena de mill mor. da boa moneda para gardaren a vnna parte aa outra todas estas cousas
      the bishop and this Fernando Bonome, for him and for his wife, compromised themselves, under a penalty of a thousand coins, to respect this agreement
    Synonym: castigo
  2. pain; sadness
    • 1370, Ramón Lorenzo (ed.), Crónica troiana, A Coruña: Fundación Barrié, page 731:
      en guisa que a sua alma ouuese bẽeyçóm et nõ andase en pena
      so that his soul would be blessed and wouldn't wander in pain
    Synonyms: dor, tristura, mágoa
Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Galician and Old Portuguese pena, from Latin pinna (feather, wing), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to fly).

NounEdit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. vanes or blades of a water wheel
    Synonym: aspa
  2. (archaic) feather
    • 1697, Juan Antonio Torrado, Fala o corvo:
      Fala o corbo, escoyten todos:
      Eu veño con asas negras
      Cortando os ventos de longe
      Para chegar à estas festas.
      Oge Apolo me tornou
      En brancas as negras penas,
      Para cantar como o Cisne
      As grandezas de Fonseca.
      The raven speaks, listen everyone:
      "I come with black wings
      Cutting the winds from afar
      To arrive to these feasts.
      Today Apolo turned
      White my black feathers
      For singing, as the Swan,
      The greatness of Fonseca."
    Synonym: pluma
  3. (archaic) pelt
    • 1409, J. L. Pensado Tomé (ed.), Rufus, Jordanus: Tratado de Albeitaria. Santiago de Compostela: Centro Ramón Piñeiro, page 133:
      coito todo ensenbra con pena de gallina
      all of that boiled together with a hen pelt
    Synonym: pelica
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

 
Pena do Guerreiro (rock known as "the Warrior"), Carnota, Galicia
 
Pena Surbia (2116 m) and Pena Trevinca (2127 m), highest mountains in Galicia

From Old Galician and Old Portuguese pena (13th century, Cantigas de Santa Maria), either from Latin pinna ("feather, wing"; then "merlon, fortress"; then, hypothetically, "rock"), or from Proto-Celtic *kʷennom (head).[1][2] Compare Portuguese penha.

NounEdit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. boulder, rock
    • 1370, Ramón Lorenzo (ed.), Crónica troiana, A Coruña: Fundación Barrié, page 688:
      alý se leuãtara hũa pena, que era en çima moy chãa et moyto alta contra o çeo
      there a rock stood, which was very flat at the top and which rose very high
    Synonym: penedo
  2. (archaic, place names) hill, hillock; mountain
    Synonym: cabeza
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • pena” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006-2012.
  • pena” in Xavier Varela Barreiro & Xavier Gómez Guinovart: Corpus Xelmírez - Corpus lingüístico da Galicia medieval. SLI / Grupo TALG / ILG, 2006-2016.
  • pena” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006-2013.
  • "pena" in Santamarina, Antón (coord.): Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega. <http://ilg.usc.es/TILG/>
  • pena” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.
  1. ^ Cf. Coromines, Joan; Pascual, José A. (1983–1991), “peña”, in Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico (in Spanish), Madrid: Gredos, →ISBN
  2. ^ García Trabazo, José Virgilio (2016), “Prelatin Toponymy of Asturies: a critical review in a historical-comparative perspective”, in Lletres Asturianes[1], issue 115, retrieved 14 June 2018, pages 51-71

Guinea-Bissau CreoleEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Portuguese pena. Cognate with Kabuverdianu péna.

NounEdit

pena

  1. feather

IndonesianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Malay penna, from Portuguese pena (quill), from Old Portuguese pena, from Latin penna and pinna, from Proto-Italic *petnā (feather, wing), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to fly). Influenced by Dutch pen. Doublet of pen.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): [ˈpɛna]
  • Hyphenation: pè‧na

NounEdit

pèna (first-person possessive penaku, second-person possessive penamu, third-person possessive penanya)

  1. pen (writing utensil)

Alternative formsEdit

  • pen (nonstandard)

SynonymsEdit

Further readingEdit


ItalianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈpe.na/
  • Hyphenation: pé‧na
  • Rhymes: -ena

NounEdit

pena f (plural pene)

  1. sorrow
  2. trouble
  3. worry, anxiety
  4. pity
  5. sentence, penalty, punishment
    Synonyms: castigo, punizione
  6. pain
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

VerbEdit

pena

  1. inflection of penare:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

Further readingEdit

  • pena in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana

AnagramsEdit


LadinEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

NounEdit

pena f (plural penes)

  1. penalty, punishment

LatinEdit

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

pēna f (genitive pēnae); first declension

  1. Alternative form of poena [Mediaeval–early New Latin]

DeclensionEdit

First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative pēna pēnae
Genitive pēnae pēnārum
Dative pēnae pēnīs
Accusative pēnam pēnās
Ablative pēnā pēnīs
Vocative pēna pēnae

ReferencesEdit

  • pena in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • pena in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • pena in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016

Old OccitanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

NounEdit

pena f (oblique plural penas, nominative singular pena, nominative plural penas)

  1. pain; suffering

SynonymsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Catalan: pena
  • Occitan: pena

PortugueseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Portuguese pena (displacing pẽa), from Latin poena,[1] from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ, penalty, fine, bloodmoney), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷoynéh₂.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): (Brazil) /ˈpẽ.nɐ/, [ˈpẽ.nɐ]
  • IPA(key): (Portugal) /ˈpe.nɐ/, [ˈpe.nɐ]

  • Hyphenation: pe‧na

NounEdit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment
    Synonyms: castigo, condenação
  2. pain; sadness
    Synonyms: dor, tristeza
Derived termsEdit

InterjectionEdit

pena

  1. pity (what a shame, what a pity)
Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Portuguese pena, from Latin penna and pinna,[1] from Proto-Italic *petnā (feather, wing), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to fly).

 
pena

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): (Brazil) /ˈpẽ.nɐ/, [ˈpẽ.nɐ]
  • IPA(key): (Portugal) /ˈpe.nɐ/, [ˈpe.nɐ]

NounEdit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. feather
    Synonym: pluma
  2. quill (pen made from a feather)
  3. (dated) Alternative form of penha
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): (Brazil) /ˈpɛ̃.nɐ/, [ˈpɛ̃.nɐ]
  • IPA(key): (Portugal) /ˈpɛ.nɐ/, [ˈpɛ.nɐ]

VerbEdit

pena

  1. third-person singular (ele and ela, also used with você and others) present indicative of penar
  2. second-person singular (tu, sometimes used with você) affirmative imperative of penar

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 pena” in Dicionário infopédia da Língua Portuguesa. Porto: Porto Editora, 2003–2021.

Serbo-CroatianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *pěna.

NounEdit

pȅna f (Cyrillic spelling пе̏на)

  1. foam

DeclensionEdit


SlovakEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *pěna.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

pena f (genitive singular peny, nominative plural peny, genitive plural pien, declension pattern of žena)

  1. foam

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit

  • pena in Slovak dictionaries at slovnik.juls.savba.sk

SloveneEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Slavic *pěna.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

pẹ́na f

  1. foam

InflectionEdit

Feminine, a-stem
nominative péna
genitive péne
singular
nominative péna
accusative péno
genitive péne
dative péni
locative péni
instrumental péno

SpanishEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈpena/, [ˈpe.na]
  • Hyphenation: pe‧na

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Spanish pena, from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

NounEdit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment
    Synonyms: castigo, condena
  2. pain, sadness
    Synonyms: dolor, tristeza
  3. trouble
    Synonyms: problema, dificultad
  4. (Latin America) embarrassment
    Synonym: vergüenza
  5. pity
    Synonym: lástima
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

VerbEdit

pena

  1. Informal second-person singular () affirmative imperative form of penar.
  2. Formal second-person singular (usted) present indicative form of penar.
  3. Third-person singular (él, ella, also used with usted?) present indicative form of penar.

Further readingEdit


TurkishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Italian penna.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ˈpɛnɑ/
  • Hyphenation: pe‧na

NounEdit

pena (definite accusative penayı, plural penalar)

  1. (music) plectrum

DeclensionEdit

Inflection
Nominative pena
Definite accusative penayı
Singular Plural
Nominative pena penalar
Definite accusative penayı penaları
Dative penaya penalara
Locative penada penalarda
Ablative penadan penalardan
Genitive penanın penaların

SynonymsEdit


VenetianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Latin paene. Compare Italian appena.

AdverbEdit

pena

  1. hardly

VolapükEdit

NounEdit

pena

  1. genitive singular of pen