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English edit

 
Meitei classical musicians playing pena

Etymology edit

Manipuri ꯄꯦꯅꯥ (penaa)

Proper noun edit

pena

  1. A Meitei classical musical instrument.

Asturian edit

Noun edit

pena f (plural penes)

  1. grief; sorrow
  2. punishment
  3. sentence (for a crime)

Derived terms edit

Bikol Central edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Spanish pena.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈpena/, [ˈpe.n̪a]
  • Hyphenation: pe‧na

Noun edit

péna (Basahan spelling ᜉᜒᜈ)

  1. penalty
    Synonym: padusa
  2. prohibition; forbiddance
    Synonyms: prohibisiyon, pagbawal, pangalad

Verb edit

péna (Basahan spelling ᜉᜒᜈ)

  1. to penalize
    Synonym: padusa
  2. to prohibit, to forbid
    Synonym: prohibir

Derived terms edit

Catalan edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Old Catalan pena, from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

pena f (plural penes)

  1. punishment
  2. (law) penalty
  3. grief, sorrow, pain
  4. difficulty, trouble
  5. a shame, a pity
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Inherited from Latin pinna (fin).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

pena f (plural penes)

  1. peen (of a hammer)
  2. (nautical) aft portion of the yard (spar used to attach a sail)

Etymology 3 edit

Inherited from Latin pinna (merlon).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

pena f (plural penes)

  1. Alternative form of penya (large rock)

Etymology 4 edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

pena

  1. inflection of penar:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

References edit

Galician edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese pena (displacing pẽa), from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ, penalty, fine, bloodmoney), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷoynéh₂.

Noun edit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment, penalty
    Synonym: castigo
    • 1370, Enrique Cal Pardo, editor, Colección diplomática medieval do arquivo da catedral de Mondoñedo, Santiago: Consello da Cultura Galega, page 103:
      o bispo et esse Ferrand Bonome por si et por sa moller se obligaron su pena de mill mor. da boa moneda para gardaren a vnna parte aa outra todas estas cousas
      the bishop and this Fernando Bonome, for him and for his wife, compromised themselves, under a penalty of a thousand coins, to respect this agreement
  2. pain; sadness
    Synonyms: dor, tristura, mágoa
    • 1370, Ramón Lorenzo, editor, Crónica troiana, A Coruña: Fundación Barrié, page 731:
      en guisa que a sua alma ouuese bẽeyçóm et nõ andase en pena
      so that his soul would be blessed and wouldn't wander in pain
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese pena, from Latin pinna (feather, wing), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to fly).

Noun edit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. vanes or blades of a water wheel
    Synonym: aspa
  2. (archaic) feather
    Synonym: pluma
    • 1697, Juan Antonio Torrado, Fala o corvo:
      Fala o corbo, escoyten todos:
      Eu veño con asas negras
      Cortando os ventos de longe
      Para chegar à estas festas.
      Oge Apolo me tornou
      En brancas as negras penas,
      Para cantar como o Cisne
      As grandezas de Fonseca.
      The raven speaks, listen everyone:
      "I come with black wings
      Cutting the winds from afar
      To arrive to these feasts.
      Today Apolo turned
      White my black feathers
      For singing, as the Swan,
      The greatness of Fonseca."
  3. (archaic) pelt
    Synonym: pelica
    • 1409, J. L. Pensado Tomé, editor, Rufus, Jordanus: Tratado de Albeitaria, Santiago de Compostela: Centro Ramón Piñeiro, page 133:
      coito todo ensenbra con pena de gallina
      all of that boiled together with a hen pelt
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

 
Pena do Guerreiro (rock known as "the Warrior"), Carnota, Galicia
 
Pena Surbia (2116 m) and Pena Trevinca (2127 m), highest mountains in Galicia

From Old Galician-Portuguese pena (13th century, Cantigas de Santa Maria), either from Latin pinna ("feather, wing"; then "merlon, fortress"; then, hypothetically, "rock"), or from Proto-Celtic *kʷennom (head).[1][2] Compare Portuguese penha.

Noun edit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. boulder, rock
    Synonym: penedo
    • 1370, Ramón Lorenzo, editor, Crónica troiana, A Coruña: Fundación Barrié, page 688:
      alý se leuãtara hũa pena, que era en çima moy chãa et moyto alta contra o çeo
      there a rock stood, which was very flat at the top and which rose very high
  2. (archaic, place names) hill, hillock; mountain
    Synonym: cabeza
Derived terms edit

References edit

  • pena” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006–2022.
  • pena” in Xavier Varela Barreiro & Xavier Gómez Guinovart: Corpus Xelmírez - Corpus lingüístico da Galicia medieval. SLI / Grupo TALG / ILG, 2006–2018.
  • pena” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006–2013.
  • "pena" in Santamarina, Antón (coord.): Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega. <http://ilg.usc.es/TILG/>
  • pena” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.
  1. ^ Cf. Joan Coromines; José A. Pascual (1983–1991), “peña”, in Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico (in Spanish), Madrid: Gredos
  2. ^ García Trabazo, José Virgilio (2016), “Prelatin Toponymy of Asturies: a critical review in a historical-comparative perspective”, in Lletres Asturianes[1], issue 115, retrieved 14 June 2018, pages 51-71

Guinea-Bissau Creole edit

Etymology edit

From Portuguese pena. Cognate with Kabuverdianu péna.

Noun edit

pena

  1. feather

Indonesian edit

Etymology edit

From Malay penna, from Portuguese pena (quill), from Old Galician-Portuguese pena, from Latin penna and pinna, from Proto-Italic *petnā (feather, wing), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to fly). Influenced by Dutch pen. Doublet of pen.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): [ˈpɛna]
  • Hyphenation: pè‧na

Noun edit

pèna (first-person possessive penaku, second-person possessive penamu, third-person possessive penanya)

  1. pen (writing utensil)

Alternative forms edit

  • pen (nonstandard)

Synonyms edit

Further reading edit

Italian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈpe.na/
  • Rhymes: -ena
  • Hyphenation: pé‧na

Etymology 1 edit

From Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

Noun edit

pena f (plural pene)

  1. sorrow
  2. trouble
  3. worry, anxiety
  4. pity
  5. sentence, penalty, punishment
    Synonyms: castigo, punizione
  6. pain
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Verb edit

pena

  1. inflection of penare:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

Further reading edit

  • pena in Treccani.it – Vocabolario Treccani on line, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana

Anagrams edit

Ladin edit

Etymology edit

From Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

Noun edit

pena f (plural penes)

  1. penalty, punishment

Latin edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

pēna f (genitive pēnae); first declension

  1. Alternative form of poena [Mediaeval–early New Latin]

Declension edit

First-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative pēna pēnae
Genitive pēnae pēnārum
Dative pēnae pēnīs
Accusative pēnam pēnās
Ablative pēnā pēnīs
Vocative pēna pēnae

References edit

  • pena in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • pena in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • pena in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016

Old Occitan edit

Etymology edit

From Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

Noun edit

pena f (oblique plural penas, nominative singular pena, nominative plural penas)

  1. pain; suffering

Synonyms edit

Descendants edit

  • Occitan: pena

Portuguese edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese pena (displacing pẽa), from Latin poena,[1] from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ, penalty, fine, bloodmoney), from Proto-Indo-European *kʷoynéh₂.

Pronunciation edit

 

Noun edit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment
    Synonyms: castigo, condenação
  2. pain; sadness
    Synonyms: dor, tristeza
Derived terms edit

Interjection edit

pena

  1. pity (what a shame, what a pity)
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese pena, from Latin penna and pinna,[1] from Proto-Italic *petnā (feather, wing), from Proto-Indo-European *péth₂r̥ ~ pth₂én- (feather, wing), from *peth₂- (to fly).

 
pena

Pronunciation edit

 

  • Hyphenation: pe‧na

Noun edit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. feather
    Synonym: pluma
  2. quill (pen made from a feather)
  3. (dated) Alternative form of penha
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation edit

 

Verb edit

pena

  1. inflection of penar:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 pena” in Dicionário infopédia da Língua Portuguesa. Porto: Porto Editora, 2003–2024.

Serbo-Croatian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *pěna, from Proto-Balto-Slavic *(s)páināˀ, from Proto-Indo-European *(s)poH(y)-.

Noun edit

pȅna f (Cyrillic spelling пе̏на)

  1. foam

Declension edit

Slovak edit

 
Slovak Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sk

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *pěna.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

pena f (genitive singular peny, nominative plural peny, genitive plural pien, declension pattern of žena)

  1. foam

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • pena”, in Slovníkový portál Jazykovedného ústavu Ľ. Štúra SAV [Dictionary portal of the Ľ. Štúr Institute of Linguistics, Slovak Academy of Science] (in Slovak), https://slovnik.juls.savba.sk, 2024

Slovene edit

 
Slovene Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia sl

Etymology edit

From Proto-Slavic *pěna.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

pẹ́na f

  1. foam

Inflection edit

 
The diacritics used in this section of the entry are non-tonal. If you are a native tonal speaker, please help by adding the tonal marks.
Feminine, a-stem
nominative péna
genitive péne
singular
nominative
(imenovȃlnik)
péna
genitive
(rodȋlnik)
dative
(dajȃlnik)
accusative
(tožȋlnik)
locative
(mẹ̑stnik)
péni
instrumental
(orọ̑dnik)
péno

Further reading edit

  • pena”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran

Spanish edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈpena/ [ˈpe.na]
  • Audio (Colombia):(file)
  • Rhymes: -ena
  • Syllabification: pe‧na

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Old Spanish pena, from Latin poena, from Ancient Greek ποινή (poinḗ).

Noun edit

pena f (plural penas)

  1. punishment
    Synonyms: castigo, condena
  2. pain, sadness
    Synonyms: dolor, tristeza
  3. trouble
    Synonyms: problema, dificultad
  4. pity
    Synonym: lástima
  5. (Latin America) embarrassment
    Synonyms: vergüenza, palta (Peru)
Derived terms edit
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Verb edit

pena

  1. inflection of penar:
    1. third-person singular present indicative
    2. second-person singular imperative

Further reading edit

Tagalog edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Spanish pena.

Pronunciation edit

  • Hyphenation: pe‧na
  • IPA(key): /ˈpena/, [ˈpɛ.nɐ]

Noun edit

pena (Baybayin spelling ᜉᜒᜈ)

  1. punishment
    Synonyms: kastigo, parusa
  2. penalty; fine
  3. pain; sorrow; grief

Related terms edit

References edit

  • pena”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018

Turkish edit

Etymology edit

From Italian penna.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈpɛnɑ/
  • Hyphenation: pe‧na

Noun edit

pena (definite accusative penayı, plural penalar)

  1. (music) plectrum

Declension edit

Inflection
Nominative pena
Definite accusative penayı
Singular Plural
Nominative pena penalar
Definite accusative penayı penaları
Dative penaya penalara
Locative penada penalarda
Ablative penadan penalardan
Genitive penanın penaların

Synonyms edit

Venetian edit

Etymology edit

From Vulgar Latin *ad poenam, with apheresis of /a-/. Compare Italian appena, etc.

Adverb edit

pena

  1. hardly

Volapük edit

Noun edit

pena

  1. genitive singular of pen