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FaroeseEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Norse ár (year), from Proto-Germanic *jērą, from Proto-Indo-European *yeh₁r-. Cognates include: Dutch jaar and Afrikaans jaar, English year, German Jahr, Danish år, Norwegian Bokmål år and Swedish år.

NounEdit

ár n (genitive singular árs, plural ár)

  1. year
DeclensionEdit
Declension of ár
n3 singular plural
indefinite definite indefinite definite
nominative ár árið ár árini
accusative ár árið ár árini
dative ári árinum árum árunum
genitive árs ársins ára áranna

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Norse ár, from Proto-Germanic *airō. Cognates include: Old English ār (oar) (English oar).

NounEdit

ár f (genitive singular árar, plural árar)

  1. oar
DeclensionEdit
f6 Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative ár árin árar árarnar
Accusative ár árina árar árarnar
Dative ár árini árum árunum
Genitive árar árarinnar ára áranna

HungarianEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): [ˈaːr]
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: ár

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Finno-Ugric *arwa (price, value).[1]

NounEdit

ár (plural árak)

  1. price
    borsos ár — an exorbitant price
    borsos ára vancost a pretty penny, cost an arm and a leg
DeclensionEdit
Inflection (stem in -a-, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative ár árak
accusative árat árakat
dative árnak áraknak
instrumental árral árakkal
causal-final árért árakért
translative árrá árakká
terminative árig árakig
essive-formal árként árakként
essive-modal
inessive árban árakban
superessive áron árakon
adessive árnál áraknál
illative árba árakba
sublative árra árakra
allative árhoz árakhoz
elative árból árakból
delative árról árakról
ablative ártól áraktól
Possessive forms of ár
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. áram áraim
2nd person sing. árad áraid
3rd person sing. ára árai
1st person plural árunk áraink
2nd person plural áratok áraitok
3rd person plural áruk áraik
Derived termsEdit

(Compound words):

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Ugric *ϑarɜ (temporary lake coming into being during flood).[2]

NounEdit

ár (plural árak)

  1. flood
    Synonyms: árvíz, áradás
  2. high tide, flow (as opposed to the ebb)
    Synonym: dagály
DeclensionEdit
Inflection (stem in -a-, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative ár árak
accusative árt árakat
dative árnak áraknak
instrumental árral árakkal
causal-final árért árakért
translative árrá árakká
terminative árig árakig
essive-formal árként árakként
essive-modal
inessive árban árakban
superessive áron árakon
adessive árnál áraknál
illative árba árakba
sublative árra árakra
allative árhoz árakhoz
elative árból árakból
delative árról árakról
ablative ártól áraktól
Possessive forms of ár
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. áram árjaim
2nd person sing. árad árjaid
3rd person sing. árja árjai
1st person plural árunk árjaink
2nd person plural áratok árjaitok
3rd person plural árjuk árjaik
Derived termsEdit

(Compound words):

Etymology 3Edit

From the Proto-Finno-Ugric *ora (awl).[3]

NounEdit

ár (plural árak)

  1. awl (pointed instrument for piercing small holes, as in leather or wood)
DeclensionEdit
Inflection (stem in -a-, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative ár árak
accusative árt árakat
dative árnak áraknak
instrumental árral árakkal
causal-final árért árakért
translative árrá árakká
terminative árig árakig
essive-formal árként árakként
essive-modal
inessive árban árakban
superessive áron árakon
adessive árnál áraknál
illative árba árakba
sublative árra árakra
allative árhoz árakhoz
elative árból árakból
delative árról árakról
ablative ártól áraktól
Possessive forms of ár
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. áram árjaim
2nd person sing. árad árjaid
3rd person sing. árja árjai
1st person plural árunk árjaink
2nd person plural áratok árjaitok
3rd person plural árjuk árjaik

Etymology 4Edit

From German Ar (are) and French are (are), from Latin ārea (threshing floor).[4]

NounEdit

ár (plural árak)

  1. are (accepted SI unit of area equal to 100 square metres)
DeclensionEdit
Inflection (stem in -a-, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative ár árak
accusative árt árakat
dative árnak áraknak
instrumental árral árakkal
causal-final árért árakért
translative árrá árakká
terminative árig árakig
essive-formal árként árakként
essive-modal
inessive árban árakban
superessive áron árakon
adessive árnál áraknál
illative árba árakba
sublative árra árakra
allative árhoz árakhoz
elative árból árakból
delative árról árakról
ablative ártól áraktól
Possessive forms of ár
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. áram árjaim
2nd person sing. árad árjaid
3rd person sing. árja árjai
1st person plural árunk árjaink
2nd person plural áratok árjaitok
3rd person plural árjuk árjaik
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Entry #26 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  2. ^ Entry #1747 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  3. ^ Entry #676 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  4. ^ Zaicz, Gábor. Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (’Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, ISBN 963 7094 01 6

IcelandicEdit

PronunciationEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Norse ár, from Proto-Germanic *airi. Cognates include: Gothic 𐌰𐌹𐍂 (air, early), Old English ār and ærlice (English early).[1]

AdverbEdit

ár

  1. (rare) early
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Norse ár (year), from Proto-Germanic *jērą, from Proto-Indo-European *yōr- < *yeh₁r-. Cognates include: Dutch jaar and Afrikaans jaar, English year, German Jahr, Danish år, Norwegian Bokmål år and Swedish år.

NounEdit

ár n (genitive singular árs, nominative plural ár)

  1. year
  2. indefinite accusative singular of ár
  3. indefinite nominative plural of ár
  4. indefinite accusative plural of ár
DeclensionEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Old Norse ár, from Proto-Germanic *airō. Cognates include: Old English ār (oar) (English oar).[1]

NounEdit

ár f (genitive singular árar, nominative plural árar)

  1. oar
  2. indefinite accusative singular of ár
  3. indefinite dative singular of ár
DeclensionEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

See the etymology of the main entry.

NounEdit

ár f

  1. inflection of á:
    1. indefinite genitive/accusative singular
    2. indefinite nominative plural

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Alf Torp, "Nynorsk Etymologisk Ordbok", Oslo 1992 (reprint), ISBN 82-90520-17-4; aarlege, aar

IrishEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Irish ar, from Proto-Celtic *anserom, from Proto-Indo-European *n̥serōm, from *nes- (we, us); compare German unser.

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /ɑːɾˠ/, /əɾˠ/, /ə/

DeterminerEdit

ár (triggers eclipsis)

  1. our
    ár dteachour house
See alsoEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Old Irish ár (slaughter), from Proto-Celtic *agros, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂eǵro- (hunt); compare Ancient Greek ἄγρα (ágra, hunt).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

ár m (genitive singular áir)

  1. slaughter, carnage
  2. havoc, destruction
DeclensionEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Borrowed from French are, from Latin area.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

ár m (genitive singular áir, nominative plural áir)

  1. are (unit of area equal to 100 square metres)

DeclensionEdit

MutationEdit

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
ár n-ár hár t-ár
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

ReferencesEdit


Old IrishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Celtic *agrom (slaughter), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂eǵro- (hunt); compare Ancient Greek ἄγρα (ágra, hunt), Avestan 𐬀𐬰𐬭𐬋𐬛𐬀𐬌𐬜𐬍(azrōdaiδī, hunt).

NounEdit

ár n (nominative plural ár or ára)

  1. slaughter, carnage
    • c. 875, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 34a19
      donaib araib
      glosses ad strages
  2. defeat, destruction
    • c. 875, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 33d4
      du ár
      glosses ad cedem
    • c. 875, Milan Glosses on the Psalms, published in Thesaurus Palaeohibernicus (reprinted 1987, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies), edited and with translations by Whitley Stokes and John Strachan, vol. I, pp. 7–483, Ml. 113b4
      etarcnae áir mo namat
      glosses de cede hostium

InflectionEdit

Neuter o-stem
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative árN árN árL, ára
Vocative árN árN árL, ára
Accusative árN árN árL, ára
Genitive áirL ár árN
Dative árL áraib, áirib áraib, áirib
Initial mutations of a following adjective:
  • H = triggers aspiration
  • L = triggers lenition
  • N = triggers nasalization

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

MutationEdit

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
ár unchanged n-ár
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further readingEdit


Old NorseEdit

PronunciationEdit

  • (9th century West Norse) IPA(key): /ˈaːr/
  • (12th century Icelandic) IPA(key): /ˈɔːr/

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Germanic *jērą (year). Cognate with Old English ġēar, Old Frisian jār, Old Saxon jār, Old Dutch jār, Old High German jār, Gothic 𐌾𐌴𐍂 (jēr).
Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *yōr- < *yeh₁r- (year).

NounEdit

ár n (genitive árs, plural ár)

  1. a year
    • Vǫluspá, verse 6, lines 9-10, in 1860, T. Möbius, Edda Sæmundar hins fróða: mit einem Anhang zum Theil bisher ungedruckter Gedichte. Leipzig, page 2:
      [] undorn ok aptan, / árum at telja.
      [] undern and evening, / years to count.
  2. plenty, abundance
    • Saga Sigurðar Jórsalafara 53, in 1832, R. Rask, Fornmanna sögur, Volume VII. Copenhagen, page 174:
      [] þvíat þá var bæði ár og friðr.
      [] since then there were both plenty and peace.
  3. the name of the A-rune
DeclensionEdit
Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Proto-Germanic *airi (early). Cognate with Old English ār, Gothic 𐌰𐌹𐍂 (air).

AdverbEdit

ár (not comparable)

  1. early, anciently
DescendantsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

From Proto-Germanic *airō (oar). Cognate with Old English ār.

NounEdit

ár f (genitive árar, plural árar)

  1. oar
DeclensionEdit
DescendantsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

See the etymology of the main entry.

NounEdit

ár

  1. genitive singular of á
  2. nominative plural of á
  3. accusative plural of á

ReferencesEdit

  • ár in An Icelandic-English Dictionary, R. Cleasby and G. Vigfússon, Clarendon Press, 1874, at Internet Archive.
  • ár in A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, G. T. Zoëga, Clarendon Press, 1910, at Internet Archive.