See also: , , , , and
U+5343, 千
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5343

[U+5342]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5344]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 24, +1, 3 strokes, cangjie input 竹十 (HJ), four-corner 20400, composition丿)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

Further readingEdit

  • KangXi: page 155, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2697
  • Dae Jaweon: page 351, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 59, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5343

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *sn̥ʰiːn): semantic (one, signifying a number) + phonetic (OC *njin). The Old Chinese pronunciations of (OC *sn̥ʰiːn) and (OC *njin) were similar. For the component , compare its combining form .

The traditional explanation holds that the extra line indicates an extension (see the etymologies of and ). has the meaning one thousand because one thousand is a number that is reached by extending one's counting.

Etymology 1Edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms financial

Unclear. Schuessler (2007) notes similar forms in Mon-Khmer, though their initials and finals do not match Old Chinese; compare Vietnamese nghìn and Old Mon lṅim (whence Mon လ္ၚီ (ŋìm)), all meaning "thousand". Also compare Proto-Hlai *C-ŋin.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • chheng/chhuiⁿ - vernacular;
  • chhian - literary.
Note:
  • cain1 - Huilai, Jieyang, Chaoyang;
  • coin1 - other places.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕʰian⁵⁵/
    Harbin /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /t͡ɕʰian²¹/
    Jinan /t͡ɕʰiã²¹³/
    Qingdao /t͡sʰiã²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /t͡sʰian²⁴/
    Xi'an /t͡ɕʰiã²¹/
    Xining /t͡ɕʰiã⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /t͡ɕʰian⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕʰiɛn⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /t͡ɕʰian⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /t͡ɕʰian⁵⁵/
    Kunming /t͡ɕʰiɛ̃⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /t͡sʰien³¹/
    Hefei /t͡ɕʰiĩ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕʰie¹¹/
    Pingyao /t͡ɕʰie̞¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡ɕʰie³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡ɕʰi⁵³/
    Suzhou /t͡sʰiɪ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /t͡ɕʰiẽ̞³³/
    Wenzhou /t͡ɕʰi³³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡sʰe³¹/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰiɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡sʰiẽ³³/
    Xiangtan /t͡sʰiẽ³³/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiɛn⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰien⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /t͡sʰien²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰin⁵³/
    Nanning /t͡sʰin⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰin⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sʰian⁵⁵/
    /t͡sʰiŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰieŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰaiŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰõi³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sin²³/
    /sai²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (14)
    Final () (85)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡sʰen/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡sʰen/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡sʰɛn/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /t͡sʰɛn/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡sʰen/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡sʰien/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡sʰien/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qiān
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qiān
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tshen ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s.n̥ˁi[ŋ]/
    English thousand

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10792
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sn̥ʰiːn/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. thousand
    2. many; numerous
    3. very
    See alsoEdit
    Chinese numbers
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 102 103 104 108 1012
    Normal
    (小寫小写)
    亿 (Taiwan)
    萬億万亿 (Mainland China)
    Financial
    (大寫大写)

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (せん) (sen)
    • Korean: (, cheon)
    • Vietnamese: thiên ()

    Others:

    • Zhuang: cien (thousand)

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
    (This character, , is the simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    Kanji in this term
    せん
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰen).

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    (せん) (sen

    1. a thousand, 1000
    Derived termsEdit
    Japanese numerical compounds with (せん) (sen)
    1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 Thousands of
    (せん) (sen)
    (いっ)(せん) (issen)
    ()(せん) (nisen) (さん)(ぜん) (sanzen) (よん)(せん) (yonsen) ()(せん) (gosen) (ろく)(せん) (rokusen) (なな)(せん) (nanasen) (はっ)(せん) (hassen) (きゅう)(せん) (kyūsen) (なん)(ぜん) (nanzen)
    (すう)(せん) (sūsen)
    IdiomsEdit

    AffixEdit

    (せん) (sen

    1. thousand
    2. (by extension) very large number
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (せん) (Sen

    1. a surname, especially from the line of tea ceremony masters

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨ti⟩/t͡ɕi/

    From Old Japanese.

    PronunciationEdit

    NumeralEdit

    () (chi

    1. a thousand, 1000
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡sʰen).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: chyèn)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527 즈〮믄〮 (Yale: cúmún) (Yale: chyèn)

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 일천(一千) (ilcheon cheon))

    1. Hanja form? of (thousand).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Old JapaneseEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Japonic *ti. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    NumeralEdit

    (ti) (kana )

    1. a thousand, 1000
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 12, poem 3059), text here
        百爾爾人者雖言月草之移情吾將持八方
        momo ni ti ni pi1to2 pa ipu to2 mo tuki2kusa no2 uturo2pu ko2ko2ro2 ware motame2 ya mo
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)

    Derived termsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Japanese: (chi)

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: thiên ((thương)(tiên)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: thiên[1][2][4][6], xiên[1]

    1. Hán tự form of thiên (thousand).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit