U+4E01, 丁
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E01

[U+4E00]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E02]
Commons:Category
Commons:Category
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Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 1, +1, 2 strokes, cangjie input 一弓 (MN), four-corner 10200, composition )

Derived characters

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Further reading

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Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :
[[wikisource:zh:康熙字典/丁部/二畫#丁|丁部/二畫]]

Wikisource


  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 75, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 2
  • Dae Jaweon: page 135, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 2, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4E01

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠆤

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming) Libian (compiled in Qing) Kangxi Dictionary (compiled in Qing)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts Clerical script Ming typeface
                   



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – different theories exist:

  • a city wall. The derivative and later is now used to represent this sense. Characters like contains it as a semantic component.
  • a head. The derivative and is now used to represent this sense. Characters like contains it as a semantic component.
  • a nail. The derivative is now used to represent this sense.

Etymology 1

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Pronunciation

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  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 丁 (姓)
Mandarin Beijing /tiŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /tiŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /tiŋ²¹/
Jinan /tiŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /tiŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /tiŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /tiŋ²¹/
Xining /tiə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /tiŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /tĩn³¹/
Ürümqi /tiŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /tin⁵⁵/
Chengdu /tin⁵⁵/
Guiyang /tin⁵⁵/
Kunming /tĩ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /tin³¹/
Hefei /tin²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /tiəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /tiŋ¹³/
Hohhot /tĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /tiŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /tin⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /tin³³/
Wenzhou /teŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /tiʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /tɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /tin³³/
Xiangtan /tin³³/
Gan Nanchang /tiɑŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /ten⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /ten²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /teŋ⁵³/
Nanning /teŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /tiŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /tiŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /tiŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /taiŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /teŋ³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ʔdeŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (5)
Final () (125)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Baxter teng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/teŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/teŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/tɛŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/tɛjŋ/
Li
Rong
/teŋ/
Wang
Li
/tieŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/tieŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
dīng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ding1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
dīng dīng
Middle
Chinese
‹ teng › ‹ teng ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˁeŋ/ /*tˁeŋ/
English 4th heavenly stem nail (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 2378
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*teːŋ/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. the fourth of the ten heavenly stems
  2. fourth; D
      ―  dīngwán  ―  butane (fourth alkane)
  3. robust; vigorous
  4. male adult; man
      ―  zhuàngdīng  ―  able-bodied man
  5. person; may specifically refer to member of a family
      ―  réndīng  ―  person
  6. small cube
      ―  ròudīng  ―  pork cubes
  7. (literary) to encounter
  8. (Hong Kong Cantonese) Short for 出前一丁 (Demae Itcho), a type of instant noodles.
    [Cantonese]  ―  lou1 ding1 [Jyutping]  ―  (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  9. a surname
      ―  Dīng Zhàozhōng  ―  Samuel Chao Chung Ting (Chinese-American physicist)
Synonyms
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Coordinate terms
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Compounds
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Descendants
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  • Zhuang: ding

Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (9)
Final () (117)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter treang
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈˠɛŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈᵚæŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶɐŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈəɨjŋ/
Li
Rong
/ȶɛŋ/
Wang
Li
/ȶæŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶæŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhēng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zang1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhēng
Middle
Chinese
‹ trɛng ›
Old
Chinese
/*tˁreŋ/
English sound of beating

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 2372
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*rteːŋ/

Definitions

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  1. Only used in 丁丁 (zhēngzhēng).

Etymology 3

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From the orthographic similarity of J (zei1, penis), an initialism of jer (zoe1, penis), which is a romanisation of (zoe1).

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese, slang, euphemistic) penis (Classifier: )
  2. (Hong Kong Cantonese, Internet slang) to masturbate; to have sexual fantasy towards another individual
Synonyms
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Etymology 4

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to sting; to bite; to advise; to urge; to repeat what one says to make sure; etc.”).
(This character is the second-round simplified form of ).
Notes:

Etymology 5

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to gaze upon; to keep eyes on; to stare at”).
(This character is the second-round simplified form of ).
Notes:

Etymology 6

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“gold slab; nail; etc.”).
(This character is the second-round simplified form of ).
Notes:

Etymology 7

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to resole a shoe; patch; etc.”).
(This character is the second-round simplified form of ).
Notes:

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. leaf, block, classifier for cake
  2. something D
    1. fourth in rank
  3. street
  4. even

Readings

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As in the onomatopoeia 丁丁:

Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
てい
Grade: 3
kan’on
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja

From Middle Chinese (teng).

Pronunciation

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Proper noun

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(てい) (Tei

  1. fourth of the Ten Heavenly stems
    Hypernyms: 天干 (tenkan), 十干 (jikkan)
    Coordinate terms: , , , , , , , , ,
  2. fourth in rank
    1. something D

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
ちょう
Grade: 3
goon

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(ちょう) (chō

  1. street, district
    北八番(きたはちばん)(ちょう)
    kita-hachiban-chō
    northern eighth district
    ぶらくり(ちょう)
    burakuri-chō
    Burakuri street
  2. even (especially of dice)
    Antonym: (han)
    (ちょう)(はん)
    chō ka han ka
    even or odd
  3. (historical) a measure of length approximately 109 meters (also written )

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
ちょう
Grade: 3
goon
Alternative spellings

From Middle Chinese (MC deng|dengX). is a daiyōji replacing .

Pronunciation

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Counter

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(ちょう) (-chō

  1. counter for long and thin things, e.g. guns, hoes, candles.
    ()(ちょう)(けん)(じゅう)
    nichō no kenjū
    two pistols
  2. counter for foods such as tofu.

Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
ひのと
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

(hi, fire, one of the Five Elements) +‎ (no, attributive marker) +‎ (oto, younger brother)

Pronunciation

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Proper noun

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(ひのと) (Hinoto

  1. the fourth of the ten heavenly stems
    Hypernyms: 天干 (tenkan), 十干 (jikkan)
    Coordinate terms: , , , , , , , , ,

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC teng). Recorded as Middle Korean 뎌ᇰ (tyeng) (Yale: tyeng) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 넷째 천간(天干) (netjjae cheon'gan( 天干 ) jeong))
(eumhun 고무래 (gomurae jeong))
(eumhun 장정 (jangjeong jeong))

  1. Hanja form? of (the fourth of the ten heavenly stems; something D).
  2. Hanja form? of (male adult; man).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]
  • Naver Hanja Dictionary: 丁

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: đinh ((đáng)(kinh)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
: Nôm readings: đứa[1][2][3][6][5][7], đinh[1][2][4][7], đềnh[1], tênh[2], tranh[2], đĩnh[3]

  1. chữ Hán form of Đinh (fourth of the ten heavenly stems).
    Hypernyms: 天干, 十干
    Coordinate terms: , , , , , , , , ,
  2. chữ Hán form of Đinh (a surname).
    丁部領Đinh Bộ Lĩnh
  3. Nôm form of đứa (indicates young person, child or inferior person).

Compounds

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References

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