See also: and
U+53F2, 史
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53F2

[U+53F1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53F3]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 30, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 中大 (LK), four-corner 50006, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 173, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3249
  • Dae Jaweon: page 384, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 571, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+53F2

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Pictogram (象形) – (OC *ɢʷɯs, “hand”) holding a fountain pen resembling (OC *tuŋ, *tuŋs)

EtymologyEdit

"to send, to employ, to cause"
Causative derivation of (OC rəʔ) "envoy (Zuo)" , "jail-official" (Guanzi), "marriage go-between", which is perhaps the same word as (OC rəʔ) "to administer" (Schuessler 2007); the sense "scribe, historian" is derived from this.
"scribe, historian"
Possibly from Austroasiatic; Schuessler (2007) compared (), (, “official”), (shǐ, “scribe, historian”), and 使 (shǐ, “ambassador”) to Old Khmer re (to move, change position) & its derivatives Old Khmer pre (to send, order, assign, appoint, delegate, use, employ, make), in turn related to paṃre (to serve; service, duty; servant, delegate, representative, minister); with Sino-Tibetan causative *s- corresponding to Khmer causative *p-.
Alternatively, Unger (1990) and Starostin & Peiros (1996) derived (OC *srɯʔ) "scribe, secretary" from (OC *rɯʔ) "to mark, to draw lines", which, while cognate with Tibetan འབྲི ('bri, to write, to draw), apparently never meant "to write, to record".

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sír/sú/sí - literary;
  • sái - vernacular.
Note: su2 - Chaoyang, Puning, Huilai.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (21)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃɨX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃɨX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃieX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂɨX/
Li
Rong
/ʃiəX/
Wang
Li
/ʃĭəX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂiX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shǐ
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
si2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shǐ
Middle
Chinese
‹ sriX ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-rəʔ/
English scribe

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11487
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*srɯʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. history
  2. (historical or archaic) historian
  3. (historical) scribe
  4. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. record, recording
  2. history

ReadingsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(ひろし) (Hiroshi

  1. A male given name

KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese (MC ʃɨX).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᄉᆞᆼ〯 (Yale: )
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] ᄉᆞ〯긧〮 (Yale: sǒkúy-s) ᄉᆞ〯 (Yale: )

PronunciationEdit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [sʰa̠(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangeul: [(ː)]
    • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 사기(史記) (sagi sa))

  1. Hanja form? of (history). [noun, suffix]

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: sử

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.