Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order

Han characterEdit

(radical 6 +7, 8 strokes, cangjie input 十中中弓 (JLLN), four-corner 50007, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 85, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 241
  • Dae Jaweon: page 174, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 23, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4E8B

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms
𠭆

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology Scriptorium.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Tianjin /sz̩⁵³/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩²¹/
Qingdao /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩³¹²/
Xi'an /sz̩⁴⁴/
Xining /sz̩²¹³/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Ürümqi /sz̩²¹³/
Wuhan /sz̩³⁵/
Chengdu /sz̩¹³/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹³/
Kunming /sz̩²¹²/
Nanjing /sz̩⁴⁴/
Hefei /sz̩⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /sz̩⁴⁵/
Pingyao /sz̩³⁵/
Hohhot /sz̩⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /zz̩²³/
Suzhou /zz̩³¹/
Hangzhou /zz̩¹³/
Wenzhou /zz̩²²/
Hui Shexian /sz̩²²/
Tunxi /sz̩¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /sz̩⁵⁵/
/sz̩¹¹/
Xiangtan /sz̩²¹/
Gan Nanchang /sz̩²¹/
Hakka Meixian /sz̩⁵³/
Taoyuan /sï⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /si²²/
Nanning /sz̩²²/
Hong Kong /si²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /su²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /søy²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /su⁴⁴/
/si³³/
/ti⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /sɯ³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /si³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (18) (20)
Final () (19) (19)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡ʃɨH/ /d͡ʒɨH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈ͡ʂɨH/ /ɖ͡ʐɨH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡ʃieH/ /d͡ʒieH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈ͡ʂɨH/ /ɖ͡ʐɨH/
Li
Rong
/t͡ʃiəH/ /d͡ʒiəH/
Wang
Li
/t͡ʃĭəH/ /d͡ʒĭəH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʈ͡ʂiH/ /ɖ͡ʐʱiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhì zhì
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shì
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzriH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[m-s-]rəʔ-s/
English serve; service, affair

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 11485 11486
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsrɯs/ /*zrɯs/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. thing; matter   (Classifier: m; m)
  2. task; work; job; career
  3. misfortune; mishap; accident
  4. to serve; to attend to someone
  5. (dialectal Mandarin) fussy; pernickety; troublesome

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Old Japanese. Cognate with ‎(koto, word). Possibly cognate with Korean ‎(geot).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana こと, romaji koto)

  1. broadly, any abstract thing, affair, matter, or fact
    1. a thing, occasion, circumstances, detail, particular
      些細 (ささい) (こと)だ。
      Sasai na koto da.
      It is a trivial matter.
      いやしくもなすに () (こと)なら立派 (りっぱ)にやるだけの価値 (かち)がある。
      Iyashiku mo nasu ni taru koto nara rippa ni yaru dake no kachi ga aru.
      If a thing is worth doing at all, it is worth doing well.
    2. act of (word used for the nominalization of verbs, adjectives, or phrases)
      ある程度 (ていど)まで (わたし)はあなたの () (こと)賛成 (さんせい)です。
      Aru teido made watashi wa anata no iu koto ni sansei desu.
      I agree with what you say to some extent.
    3. (by extension) experience, having been or done (used with ある, ga aru)
      京都 (きょうと) ()った (こと) ()りますか。
      Kyōto ni itta koto ga arimasuka.
      Have you ever been to Kyoto?
       (かれ)学校 (がっこう)遅刻 (ちこく)する (こと) ()る。
      Kare wa gakkō ni chikoku suru koto ga aru.
      He is sometimes late for school.
    4. event of special importance: affair, something, incident, case, occurrence, trouble
      大変 (たいへん) (こと) ()こった。
      Taihen na koto ga okotta.
      A terrible accident occurred.
    5. business matters, affairs, business, work, duty
       (あわ)てて (こと) (はこ)ぶとミスをしますよ。
      Awatete koto o hakobu to misu o shimasu yo.
      You make mistakes if you do things in a hurry.

Usage notesEdit

This term is usually written in hiragana. (koto) is used for abstract things, such as an action or concept. ‎(mono) is used for more concrete things, such as physical objects.

PhrasesEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(sa) (hangeul , revised sa, McCune-Reischauer sa)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(sự, )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit

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