See also: and
U+66F4, 更
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-66F4

[U+66F3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+66F5]
Uf901.svg
U+F901, 更
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F901

[U+F900]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F902]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 73, +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 一中田大 (MLWK), four-corner 10506, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 502, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14283
  • Dae Jaweon: page 874, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 20, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+66F4

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Unknown, originally , probably a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kraːŋ, *kraːŋs): phonetic (OC *pqraŋʔ) + semantic according to Shuowen.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note: “jīng” - literary variant for sense “to experience”.
Note: literary reading.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 更 (換)
Mandarin Beijing /kəŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /kəŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kəŋ²¹/
Jinan /kəŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /kəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kəŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /kəŋ²¹/
Xining /kə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kəŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /kɤŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kən⁵⁵/
Chengdu /kən⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ken²¹³/
Kunming /kə̃⁴⁴/
Nanjing /kən³¹/
Hefei /kən²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kəŋ¹¹/ ~換
/t͡ɕiəŋ¹¹/ 五~
Pingyao /kəŋ¹³/
Hohhot /kə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kã⁵³/
/kəŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /kã⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ken³³/
Wenzhou /kiɛ³³/
Hui Shexian /kʌ̃³¹/
/kɛ³¹/ 打~
Tunxi /t͡ɕiɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /kən³³/
Xiangtan /kən³³/
Gan Nanchang /kɑŋ⁴²/ 打~
Hakka Meixian /kaŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kɑŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɐŋ⁵³/
Nanning /kɐŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kɐŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiŋ⁵⁵/
/kĩ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kaiŋ³³/
/kaŋ⁵⁴/ 三~
Shantou (Min Nan) /keŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /keŋ²³/
/kɔŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (109)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠæŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚaŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kaŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaɨjŋ/
Li
Rong
/kɐŋ/
Wang
Li
/kɐŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɐŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gēng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gang1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gēng
Middle
Chinese
‹ kæng ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁraŋ/
English change (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 866
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kraːŋ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to change; to replace
  2. to take turns; to rotate
  3. to experience
  4. 28th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "change" (𝌡)

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


Note: vernacular reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (109)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠæŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚaŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kaŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaɨjŋ/
Li
Rong
/kɐŋ/
Wang
Li
/kɐŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɐŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gēng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gang1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gēng
Middle
Chinese
‹ kæng ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁraŋ/
English change (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 866
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kraːŋ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (historical) watch (of a sentry)
  2. (historical) one of the five two-hour periods into which the night was formerly divided
  3. (by extension, Hong Kong Cantonese) shift; work period

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 3Edit


Note: literary reading.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 更 (加)
Mandarin Beijing /kəŋ⁵¹/
Harbin /kəŋ⁵³/
Tianjin /kəŋ⁵³/
Jinan /kəŋ²¹/
Qingdao /kəŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /kəŋ³¹²/
Xi'an /kəŋ⁴⁴/
Xining /kə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /kəŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /kə̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /kɤŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /kən³⁵/
Chengdu /kən¹³/
Guiyang /ken²¹³/
Kunming /kə̃¹/
Nanjing /kən⁴⁴/
Hefei /kən⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /kəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /kəŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /kə̃ŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /kəŋ³⁵/
Suzhou /kən⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ken⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /kiɛ⁴²/
Hui Shexian /kʌ̃³²⁴/
Tunxi /kiɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /kən⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /kən⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /kiɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ken⁵³/
Taoyuan /ken⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kɐŋ³³/
Nanning /kɐŋ³³/
Hong Kong /kɐŋ³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiŋ²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kaiŋ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kaiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /keŋ²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /keŋ³⁵/
/kɔŋ³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (109)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠæŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚaŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kaŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaɨjŋH/
Li
Rong
/kɐŋH/
Wang
Li
/kɐŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kɐŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gèng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gang3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gèng
Middle
Chinese
‹ kængH ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁraŋ-s/
English still more

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 879
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kraːŋs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. more; further; even more
    裙子漂亮  ―  Wǒ de qúnzi gèng piàoliang!  ―  My skirt is even more beautiful!
    加拿大房子美國 [MSC, trad.]
    加拿大房子美国 [MSC, simp.]
    Jiānádà de fángzi bǐ Měiguó de gèng guì. [Pinyin]
    Canadian homes are even more expensive than American homes.

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
さら
Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
さら2
[noun] something new and unused
[proper noun] a female given name
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
こもごも
Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
こもごも
[adverb] alternating; one after another
[adverb] all mixed up and indistinct
Alternative spellings
交々, , ,
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
[noun] growing late
[noun] Short for 深田(ふけだ) (fukeda, muddy rice field​).
Alternative spellings
,
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: S
on’yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(こう) (かう (kau)?

  1. one of the five two-hour periods into which the night was divided in ancient China

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Chinese (MC kˠæŋH).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean ᄀᆡᇰ〮 (Yale: kóyng) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] 다시 ᄀᆡᆼ[1] Recorded as Middle Korean ᄀᆡᆼ (Yale: koyng) in Sinjeung Yuhap (新增類合 / 신증유합), 1576.
Early Modern Korean
Text Final (韻) Reading
Samun Seonghwi, 1751 다시 ᄀᆡᆼ Recorded as Early Modern Korean ᄀᆡᆼ (Yale: koyng) in Juhae Cheonjamun (註解千字文 / 주해천자문), 1804.
  1. ^ 去聲

PronunciationEdit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [kɛ(ː)ŋ] ~ [ke̞(ː)ŋ]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)/(ː)]
    • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 다시 (dasi gaeng))

  1. Hanja form? of (again).

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle Chinese (MC kˠæŋ).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean ᄀᆡᇰ (Yale: kòyng) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 고틸 ᄀᆡᆼ Recorded as Middle Korean ᄀᆡᆼ (Yale: koyng) in Sinjeung Yuhap (新增類合 / 신증유합), 1576.
Early Modern Korean
Text Final (韻) Reading
Samun Seonghwi, 1751 고칠 Recorded as Early Modern Korean  (Yale: kyeng) in Juhae Cheonjamun (註解千字文 / 주해천자문), 1804.

PronunciationEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 고칠 (gochil gyeong))

  1. Hanja form? of (to change; to fix).

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Việt readings: canh[1][2][3], cánh[1][3]
: Nôm readings: canh[1][2][3], cánh[1][2], cành[1], gánh[2], ngạnh[3]

  1. Hán tự form of canh (to watch; to guard).

ReferencesEdit