See also: and
U+53F3, 右
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-53F3

[U+53F2]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+53F4]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order (Japan)
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 30, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 大口 (KR), four-corner 40600, composition𠂇)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 173, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 3250
  • Dae Jaweon: page 385, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 569, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+53F3

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Originally (OC *ɢʷɯs, “right hand”) in the oracle bone script.

In bronze inscriptions, a (“mouth; speech”) component was added, perhaps with the intention of indicating the use of (OC *ɢʷɯs, “again”) is a phonetic loan. In other words, the current form is a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɢʷɯʔ, *ɢʷɯs): phonetic  (OC *ɢʷɯs) + semantic .

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-(j/r)a (right (hand)) (STEDT). Cognate with Tibetan གཡས (g.yas, right), Jingpho hkra (khʒa⁵⁵, right), Burmese ယာ (ya), ညာ (nya).

(OC *ɢʷɯʔ, “be friendly; friend”) is the endoactive derivation of (OC *ɢʷɯʔ) (Schuessler, 2007).

(OC *ɢʷɯs, “to aid”), (OC *ɢʷɯs, “(of divinity) to assist; to bless”), (OC *ɢʷɯs, “to pardon; magnanimous”) are exoactive derivations of (OC *ɢʷɯʔ) (ibid.).

“(politics) right-wing”
Semantic loan from English right, in turn a semantic loan from French droite.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • iou5 - vernacular;
  • iou4 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (35)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦɨuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦiuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣiəuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦuwX/
Li
Rong
/ɣiuX/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭəuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ə̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yǒu
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yòu
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjuwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷəʔ/
English right hand

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 15597
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷɯʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. right (direction)
      ―  yòushǒu  ―  right hand
  2. west; areas to the west
  3. (historical) right side as the side of precedence
  4. (politics) right-wing
  5. A surname​.
SynonymsEdit
AntonymsEdit
  • (zuǒ, “left”)

Pronunciation 2Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (35)
Final () (136)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦɨuH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦiuH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣiəuH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦuwH/
Li
Rong
/ɣiuH/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭəuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ə̯uH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yòu
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yòu
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjuwH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷəʔ-s/ (~ *m-qʷəʔ)
English right hand

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 15604
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷɯs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Original form of (yòu, “to assist”).
  2. Original form of (yòu, “to protect; to bless”).
  3. to take somebody's side
  4. Alternative form of (yòu, “to urge somebody to eat or drink”).

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (u); (ゆう) ()
  • Korean: (, u)
  • Vietnamese: hữu ()

Others:

  • Bouyei: gvaz (right)
  • Lao: ຂວາ (khuā, right)
  • Lü: ᦧᦱ (ẋwaa, right)
  • Northern Thai: ᨡ᩠ᩅᩣ (right)
  • Shan: ၶႂႃ (khwǎa, right)
  • Thai: ขวา (kwǎa, right)
  • Zhuang: gvaz (right)

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. right
  2. conservative
  3. right-wing, right fielder
  4. respect for
  5. aid, assist, counsel

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
みぎ
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(みぎ) (migi

  1. right (direction)
    • 1999 July 22, “(ふう)(いん)されし(もの)(みぎ)(あし) [Right Leg of the Sealed One]”, in Vol.4, Konami:
      (ふう)(いん)された(みぎ)(あし)(ふう)(いん)()くと、()(げん)(ちから)()られる。
      Fūinsareta migiashi. Fūin o toku to, mugen no chikara o erareru.
      A sealed right leg. Whosoever breaks the seal shall earn infinite power.
  2. (in vertical writing of Japanese, with columns running right to left) the above statement, foregoing
  3. (politics) the right wing, a rightist
  4. (historical) a superior during in the Chinese Warring States period
    Synonym: 上位 (jōi)
AntonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit
ProverbsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
みぎり
Grade: 1
Irregular

The final (ri) is likely by analogy with its antonym (hidari, left).[3]

NounEdit

(みぎり) (migiri

  1. (archaic) Same as みぎ (migi) above

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
ゆう
Grade: 1
kan’on

The “right (direction)” and “respect, esteem, value” senses are from Middle Chinese (MC ɦɨuX).

The “aid, assist” sense is from Middle Chinese / (MC ɦɨuH).

The kan'on pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

AffixEdit

(ゆう) ( (historical kana いう)

  1. right (direction)
  2. respect; esteem; value
  3. Alternative form of (, aid; assist)

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦɨuX).

The goon pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

AffixEdit

() (u

  1. right (direction)
  2. (politics) right-wing
  3. (baseball) right fielder

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 오른쪽 (oreunjjok u))

  1. Hanja form? of (right (direction)).

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 도울 (doul u))

  1. Hanja form? of (to help; to aid; to assist; to give a hand).

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: hữu

  1. right (direction)