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See also:
U+6F22, 漢
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6F22

[U+6F21]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6F23]
U+FA47, 漢
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA47

[U+FA46]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA48]
U+FA9A, 漢
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA9A

[U+FA99]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA9B]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Shinjitai
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative formsEdit

Note that in traditional Chinese, the component   for this character is written with 廿 on top while in Japanese shinjitai, the component   is written with on top and has one stroke less. In simplified Chinese, the component   is simplified to instead.

Han characterEdit

(radical 85 +11 in Chinese, 水+10 in Japanese, in Chinese 14 strokes, in Japanese 13 strokes, cangjie input 水廿中人 (ETLO), four-corner 34134, composition𦰩(GHTKV) or ⿰(J))

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 646, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18068
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1055, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1713, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+6F22

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*naːl
*naːl, *neːl, *njeːl
*n̥ʰaːn, *n̥ʰaːns
*n̥ʰaːn, *naːns, *hnaːnʔ, *hnaːns
*n̥ʰaːn
*n̥ʰaːn, *naːnʔ, *naːns
*n̥ʰaːn
*n̥ʰaːns
*n̥ʰaːn, *naːns
*hnaːnʔ, *hnaːns
*hnaːnʔ, *hnaːns, *njanʔ
*hnaːns
*rnaːnʔ, *njanʔ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *hnaːns): semantic  (water) + phonetic 𦰩 – name of a river.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xan⁵¹/
Harbin /xan⁵³/
Tianjin /xan⁵³/
Jinan /xã²¹/
Qingdao /xã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xan³¹²/
Xi'an /xã⁴⁴/
Xining /xã²¹³/
Yinchuan /xan¹³/
Lanzhou /xɛ̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /xan²¹³/
Wuhan /xan³⁵/
Chengdu /xan¹³/
Guiyang /xan²¹³/
Kunming /xã̠²¹²/
Nanjing /xaŋ⁴⁴/
Hefei /xæ̃⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /xæ̃⁴⁵/
Pingyao /xɑŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /xæ̃⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /hø³⁵/
Suzhou /hø⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /hẽ̞⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /ɕy⁴²/
Hui Shexian /xɛ³²⁴/
Tunxi /xuːə¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xan⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /xan⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /hɵn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hon⁵³/
Taoyuan /hon⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔn³³/
Nanning /hɔn³³/
Hong Kong /hɔn³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ham²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hɑŋ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xuiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /haŋ²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /haŋ³⁵/
/haŋ³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (61)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hɑnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/hɑnH/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɑnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hanH/
Li
Rong
/xɑnH/
Wang
Li
/xɑnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ xanH ›
Old
Chinese
/*n̥ˤar-s/ (W dialect: *n̥- > MC x-, *-r > *-n)
English (river name)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4905
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hnaːns/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (~水) Han River, a tributary of the Yangtze
  2. (Classical Chinese) the Milky Way
  3. (~江) Han River, the fourth-longest river on the Korean peninsula
  4. (~朝) Han Dynasty
  5. Chinese; Chinese people
  6. Chinese language
  7. man; guy; bloke
  8. A surname​.

See alsoEdit

Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
Name Time period Divisions
Xia
(~朝, ~代)
2070 – 1600 BCE
Shang
(~朝, ~代)
(~朝, ~代)
1600 – 1046 BCE
Zhou
(~朝, ~代)
1046 – 256 BCE Western Zhou
西周
Eastern Zhou
東周东周
Spring and Autumn period
春秋
Warring States period
戰國战国
Qin
(~朝, ~代)
221 – 206 BCE
Han
(~朝, ~代)
206 BCE – 220 CE Western Han
西漢西汉
Xin
(~朝)
Eastern Han
東漢东汉
Three Kingdoms
三國三国
220 – 280 CE Wei
Shu
Wu
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
265 – 420 CE Western Jin
西晉西晋
Eastern Jin
東晉东晋
Southern and Northern dynasties
南北朝
420 – 589 CE Northern dynasties
北朝
Northern Wei
北魏
Western Wei
西魏
Eastern Wei
東魏东魏
Northern Zhou
北周
Northern Qi
北齊北齐
Southern dynasties
南朝
Liu Song
劉宋刘宋
Southern Qi
南齊南齐
Liang
(~朝, ~代)
Chen
(~朝, ~代)
Sui
(~朝, ~代)
581 – 618 CE
Tang
(~朝, ~代)
618 – 907 CE
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
五代十國五代十国
907 – 960 CE
Liao
(~朝, ~代)
907 – 1125 CE
Song
(~朝, ~代)
960 – 1279 CE Northern Song
北宋
Southern Song
南宋
Western Xia
西夏
1038 – 1227 CE
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
1115 – 1234 CE
Western Liao
西遼西辽
1124 – 1218 CE
Yuan
(~朝, ~代)
1271 – 1368 CE
Ming
(~朝, ~代)
1368 – 1644 CE
Qing
(~朝, ~代)
1636 – 1912 CE

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. Sino-, China
  2. man

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
かん
Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC hɑnH), in reference to the Han Chinese ethnic group.

The sense of man arose from usage in Chinese to differentiate between the “civilized” people of the Han Chinese ethnicity versus other ethnic groups.

NounEdit

(hiragana かん, rōmaji kan)

  1. man
    さらに () (じょう) (とく) ()する (かん)あり、 (めい) (ちゅう) () (めい) (かん)あり。
    Sara ni gojō ni tokugo suru kan ari, meichū umei no kan ari.
    Moreover, some men achieve enlightenment and further enlightenment, and some men achieve confusion and further confusion.
Derived termsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana かん, rōmaji Kan)

  1. the name of China during the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE)
  2. name of various Chinese dynasties
    1. the 西漢 (Saikan, Western Han) or 前漢 (Zenkan, Former Han) (206 BCE – 9 CE)
    2. the 東漢 (Tōkan, Eastern Han) or 後漢 (Gokan, Later Han) (25–220 CE)
    3. the 蜀漢 (Shokkan, Shu Han) (221-263)
    4. the 前趙 (Zenchō, Former Zhao) (304–329)
    5. the 成漢 (Seikan, Cheng Han) (304–347)
    6. the 南漢 (Nankan, Southern Han) (917–971)
    7. the 後漢 (Kōkan, Later Han) (947–951)
    8. the 北漢 (Hokukan, Northern Han) (951–979)
  3. the Han Chinese people
  4. the Han River, a tributary of the Yangtze
  5. (by extension from the "river" sense) the Milky Way
    Synonyms: 天漢 (Tenkan), 天河 (Tenga), 銀漢 (Ginkan), 銀河 (Ginga), 天の川 (Ama-no-gawa)
  6. alternative name for 漢中 (Kanchū, Hanzhong)
  7. a surname
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
から
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

Originally referred to the Gaya confederacy, an independent state in the south of the Korean peninsula in the years 42-562 CE. Over time, the meaning extended to refer in general to the Korean peninsula and China, expanding further just before and during the Edo period to refer to foreign lands in general.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

(hiragana から, rōmaji kara-)

  1. element in compounds, referring to things imported from China or Korea, or from other foreign lands
    漢詩 (からうた)唐歌 (からうた) (から) ()漢音 (からごえ)
    karauta, karauta, karaage, karagoe
    Chinese-style poetry (as opposed to formal waka Japanese-style poetry), Chinese-style poetry, deep-fried chicken or fish (a style introduced by Europeans in the 1600s), “Chinese voice” → the kan'on or Chinese-derived reading for a character
Derived termsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana から, rōmaji kara)

  1. (historical) shortly before and during the Edo period, foreign lands in general

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana から, rōmaji Kara)

  1. the Gaya confederacy
  2. (archaic) the Korean peninsula
  3. (archaic) China, especially during the Han dynasty
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
あや
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese, in reference to clans purportedly originating from China.[1][3][2] Appears to be cognate with / / / (aya, a pattern or design; a pattern of diagonally interweaving lines; twill; how something fits together, the reason or background of a thing; skillful expression in color or words; melody, tune), possibly in distant reference to technologies and cultural practices brought to Japan by the original Chinese immigrants.

PronunciationEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana あや, rōmaji Aya)

  1. short for 漢氏 (Aya uji): name of one of two ancient clans, purportedly descendants from Han Chinese, and notable historically for major achievements in fields including literature, diplomacy, and finance, among others
    1. 東漢 (Yamato no Aya)
    2. 西漢 (Kawachi no Aya)

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
おとこ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

Rare alternative spelling for (otoko, man), from usage in Chinese to differentiate between the “civilized” people of the Han Chinese ethnicity versus other ethnic groups.

See the entry for the derivation of the reading.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana おとこ, rōmaji otoko, historical hiragana をとこ)

  1. (manga slang) Rare spelling of (man).
    • 2004 July 7, Watsuki, Nobuhiro, “だい26 トレーニング・デイ [Chapter 26: Training Day]”, in ソウレンキン [Armed Alchemy], volume 3 (in Japanese), Tokyo: Shueisha, ISBN 4-08-873630-3, page 161:
       (おとこ) () (なか) (じん) (せい) (かた)る!キミのベストポーズでスーパーアピール‼
      Otoko wa senaka de jinsei o kataru! Kimi no besuto pōzu de sūpā apīru‼
      Men show what life is with their backs! Strike your best pose to drive home your point‼

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  4. 4.0 4.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13143-0
  5. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(han) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer han, Yale han)

  1. China
  2. man

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hánhớn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.