(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)
- Sino-, China
From Middle Chinese 漢 (MC hɑnH), in reference to the Han Chinese ethnic group.
The sense of man arose from usage in Chinese to differentiate between the “civilized” people of the Han Chinese ethnicity versus other ethnic groups.
漢 • (kan)
- Sara ni gojō ni tokugo suru kan ari, meichū umei no kan ari.
- Moreover, some men achieve enlightenment and further enlightenment, and some men achieve confusion and further confusion.
- 悪漢 (akkan), 凶漢, 兇漢 (kyōkan, “villain”)
- 快漢 (kaikan), 好漢 (kōkan, “fine man”)
- 怪漢 (kaikan, “suspicious person”)
- 巨漢 (kyokan, “giant”)
- 硬骨漢 (kōkotsu-kan, “man of principle”)
- 酔漢 (suikan, “drunkard”)
- 大食漢 (daishoku-kan, “glutton”)
- 痴漢 (chikan, “molester”)
- 熱血漢 (nekketsu-kan, “hot-blooded person”)
- 暴漢 (bōkan, “hoodlum, ruffian”)
- 木石漢 (bokuseki-kan, “unfeeling or callous person”)
- 没分暁漢 (botsubungyō-kan, “blockhead, obstinate person”)
- 門外漢 (mongai-kan, “outsider”)
- 冷血漢 (reiketsu-kan, “cold-blooded person”)
漢 • (Kan)
- the name of China during the Han dynasty (206 B.C.E. – 220 C.E.)
- name of various Chinese dynasties
- the 西漢 (Saikan, “Western Han”) or 前漢 (Zenkan, “Former Han”) (206 B.C.E. – 9 C.E.)
- the 東漢 (Tōkan, “Eastern Han”) or 後漢 (Gokan, “Later Han”) (25–220 C.E.)
- the 蜀漢 (Shokkan, “Shu Han”) (221-263)
- the 成漢 (Seikan, “Cheng Han”) (304–347)
- the 南漢 (Nankan, “Southern Han”) (917–971)
- the 後漢 (Kōkan, “Later Han”) (947–951)
- the 北漢 (Hokukan, “Northern Han”) (951–979)
- the Han Chinese people
- the Han River, a tributary of the Yangtze
- (by extension from the "river" sense) the Milky Way
- Synonyms: 天漢 (Tenkan), 天河 (Tenga), 銀漢 (Ginkan), 銀河 (Ginga), 天の川 (Ama-no-gawa)
- alternative name for 漢中 (Kanchū, “Hanzhong”)
- a surname
From Old Japanese.
Originally referred to the Gaya confederacy, an independent state in the south of the Korean peninsula in the years 42-562 CE. Over time, the meaning extended to refer in general to the Korean peninsula and China, expanding further just before and during the Edo period to refer to foreign lands in general.
- (usually China in the Tang dynasty, and foreign lands in general): 唐
- (usually Korea): 韓
- (specifically the Gaya confederacy): 加羅, 伽羅, 迦羅
漢 • (kara-)
- element in compounds, referring to things imported from China or Korea, or from other foreign lands
- karauta, karauta, karaage, karagoe
- Chinese-style poetry (as opposed to formal waka Japanese-style poetry), Chinese-style poetry, deep-fried chicken or fish (a style introduced by Europeans in the 1600s), “Chinese voice” → the kan'on or Chinese-derived reading for a character
漢 • (kara)
- (historical) shortly before and during the Edo period, foreign lands in general
漢 • (Kara)
- the Gaya confederacy
- (archaic) the Korean peninsula
- (archaic) China, especially during the Han dynasty
From Old Japanese, in reference to clans purportedly originating from China. Appears to be cognate with 文 / 紋 / 綾 / 絢 (aya, “a pattern or design; a pattern of diagonally interweaving lines; twill; how something fits together, the reason or background of a thing; skillful expression in color or words; melody, tune”), possibly in distant reference to technologies and cultural practices brought to Japan by the original Chinese immigrants.
漢 • (Aya)
- short for 漢氏 (Aya uji): name of one of two ancient clans, purportedly descendants from Han Chinese, and notable historically for major achievements in fields including literature, diplomacy, and finance, among others
- 東漢 (Yamato no Aya)
- 西漢 (Kawachi no Aya)
Rare alternative spelling for 男 (otoko, “man”), from usage in Chinese to differentiate between the “civilized” people of the Han Chinese ethnicity versus other ethnic groups.
See the 男 entry for the derivation of the reading.
漢 • (otoko) (historical kana をとこ)
- (slang) Rare spelling of 男 (“man”).
- Otoko wa senaka de jinsei o kataru! Kimi no besuto pōzu de sūpā apīru‼
- Men show what life is with their backs! Strike your best pose to drive home your point!!
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典（新装版） (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
- ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN