See also:
U+6F22, 漢
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6F22

[U+6F21]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6F23]
U+FA47, 漢
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA47

[U+FA46]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA48]
U+FA9A, 漢
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA9A

[U+FA99]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA9B]

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Alternative formsEdit

  • In Traditional Chinese, Japanese kyūjitai, Korean hanja and Vietnamese Hán Nôm, the component   for this character is written with 廿 on top. Note that the bottom portion is written overlapped by and not on top of .
  • In Japanese shinjitai, the component   is written with on top and has one stroke less. Due to Han unification, both traditional Chinese and Japanese shinjitai forms are encoded under the same code point. The appearance of this character will differ depending on the font used.
  • In Simplified Chinese, the component   is simplified to instead, giving the character (U+6C49).
  • Two compatibility ideographs exist for this character. U+FA47 corresponds to the kyūjitai form of this character while U+FA9A corresponds to the alternative form used in North Korea which is similar to Japanese shinjitai.

Han characterEdit

(radical 85, +11 in Chinese and Korean, 水+10 in Japanese, 14 strokes in Chinese and Korean, 13 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 水廿中人 (ETLO), four-corner 34134 or 34185, composition廿(GHTKV or U+FA47) or ⿰𦰩(J or U+FA9A))

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 646, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 18068
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1055, character 15
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1713, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+6F22

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:


Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *hnaːns): semantic (water) + phonetic 𦰩 – name of a river.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xan⁵¹/
Harbin /xan⁵³/
Tianjin /xan⁵³/
Jinan /xã²¹/
Qingdao /xã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xan³¹²/
Xi'an /xã⁴⁴/
Xining /xã²¹³/
Yinchuan /xan¹³/
Lanzhou /xɛ̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /xan²¹³/
Wuhan /xan³⁵/
Chengdu /xan¹³/
Guiyang /xan²¹³/
Kunming /xã̠²¹²/
Nanjing /xaŋ⁴⁴/
Hefei /xæ̃⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /xæ̃⁴⁵/
Pingyao /xɑŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /xæ̃⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /hø³⁵/
Suzhou /hø⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /hẽ̞⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /ɕy⁴²/
Hui Shexian /xɛ³²⁴/
Tunxi /xuːə¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xan⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /xan⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /hɵn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /hon⁵³/
Taoyuan /hon⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔn³³/
Nanning /hɔn³³/
Hong Kong /hɔn³³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /han²¹/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hɑŋ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xuiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /haŋ²¹³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /haŋ³⁵/
/haŋ³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (61)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hɑnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/hɑnH/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɑnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hanH/
Li
Rong
/xɑnH/
Wang
Li
/xɑnH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑnH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hàn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ xanH ›
Old
Chinese
/*n̥ˁar-s/ (W dialect: *n̥- > MC x-, *-r > *-n)
English (river name)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4905
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hnaːns/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (~水) Han River, a tributary of the Yangtze
  2. (Classical Chinese) the Milky Way
  3. (~江) Han River, the fourth-longest river on the Korean peninsula
  4. (~朝) Han Dynasty
  5. Chinese; Chinese people
  6. Short for 漢語汉语 (hànyǔ, “Chinese language”).
  7. man; guy; bloke
  8. A surname​.

See alsoEdit

Dynasties (朝代) in Chinese history
Name Time period Divisions
Xia
(~朝, ~代)
2070 – 1600 B.C.E.
Shang
(~朝, ~代)
(~朝, ~代)
1600 – 1046 B.C.E.
Zhou
(~朝, ~代)
1046 – 256 B.C.E. Western Zhou
西周
Eastern Zhou
東周东周
Spring and Autumn period
春秋
Warring States period
戰國战国
Qin
(~朝, ~代)
221 – 206 B.C.E.
Han
(~朝, ~代)
206 B.C.E. – 220 C.E. Western Han
西漢西汉
Xin
(~朝)
Eastern Han
東漢东汉
Three Kingdoms
三國三国
220 – 280 C.E. Wei
Shu
Wu
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
265 – 420 C.E. Western Jin
西晉西晋
Eastern Jin
東晉东晋
Southern and Northern dynasties
南北朝
420 – 589 C.E. Northern dynasties
北朝
Northern Wei
北魏
Western Wei
西魏
Eastern Wei
東魏东魏
Northern Zhou
北周
Northern Qi
北齊北齐
Southern dynasties
南朝
Liu Song
劉宋刘宋
Southern Qi
南齊南齐
Liang
(~朝, ~代)
Chen
(~朝, ~代)
Sui
(~朝, ~代)
581 – 618 C.E.
Tang
(~朝, ~代)
618 – 907 C.E.
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
五代十國五代十国
907 – 960 C.E.
Liao
(~朝, ~代)
907 – 1125 C.E.
Song
(~朝, ~代)
960 – 1279 C.E. Northern Song
北宋
Southern Song
南宋
Western Xia
西夏
1038 – 1227 C.E.
Jin
(~朝, ~代)
1115 – 1234 C.E.
Western Liao
西遼西辽
1124 – 1218 C.E.
Yuan
(~朝, ~代)
1271 – 1368 C.E.
Ming
(~朝, ~代)
1368 – 1644 C.E.
Qing
(~朝, ~代)
1636 – 1912 C.E.

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (かん) (kan)
  • Korean: (, han)
  • Vietnamese: Hán ()

JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. Sino-, China
  2. man

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
かん
Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC hɑnH), in reference to the Han Chinese ethnic group.

The sense of man arose from usage in Chinese to differentiate between the “civilized” people of the Han Chinese ethnicity versus other ethnic groups.

NounEdit

(かん) (kan

  1. man
    さらに()(じょう)(とく)()する(かん)あり、(めい)(ちゅう)()(めい)(かん)あり。
    Sara ni gojō ni tokugo suru kan ari, meichū umei no kan ari.
    Moreover, some men achieve enlightenment and further enlightenment, and some men achieve confusion and further confusion.
Derived termsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(かん) (Kan

  1. the name of China during the Han dynasty (206 B.C.E. – 220 C.E.)
  2. name of various Chinese dynasties
    1. the 西漢 (Saikan, Western Han) or 前漢 (Zenkan, Former Han) (206 B.C.E. – 9 C.E.)
    2. the 東漢 (Tōkan, Eastern Han) or 後漢 (Gokan, Later Han) (25–220 C.E.)
    3. the 蜀漢 (Shokkan, Shu Han) (221-263)
    4. the 成漢 (Seikan, Cheng Han) (304–347)
    5. the 南漢 (Nankan, Southern Han) (917–971)
    6. the 後漢 (Kōkan, Later Han) (947–951)
    7. the 北漢 (Hokukan, Northern Han) (951–979)
  3. the Han Chinese people
  4. the Han River, a tributary of the Yangtze
  5. (by extension from the "river" sense) the Milky Way
    Synonyms: 天漢 (Tenkan), 天河 (Tenga), 銀漢 (Ginkan), 銀河 (Ginga), 天の川 (Ama-no-gawa)
  6. alternative name for 漢中 (Kanchū, Hanzhong)
  7. a surname
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
から
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

Originally referred to the Gaya confederacy, an independent state in the south of the Korean peninsula in the years 42-562 CE. Over time, the meaning extended to refer in general to the Korean peninsula and China, expanding further just before and during the Edo period to refer to foreign lands in general.[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

(から) (kara-

  1. element in compounds, referring to things imported from China or Korea, or from other foreign lands
    漢詩(からうた)唐歌(からうた)(から)()漢音(からごえ)
    karauta, karauta, karaage, karagoe
    Chinese-style poetry (as opposed to formal waka Japanese-style poetry), Chinese-style poetry, deep-fried chicken or fish (a style introduced by Europeans in the 1600s), “Chinese voice” → the kan'on or Chinese-derived reading for a character
Derived termsEdit

NounEdit

(から) (kara

  1. (historical) shortly before and during the Edo period, foreign lands in general

Proper nounEdit

(から) (Kara

  1. the Gaya confederacy
  2. (archaic) the Korean peninsula
  3. (archaic) China, especially during the Han dynasty
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
あや
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese, in reference to clans purportedly originating from China.[1][3][2] Appears to be cognate with / / / (aya, a pattern or design; a pattern of diagonally interweaving lines; twill; how something fits together, the reason or background of a thing; skillful expression in color or words; melody, tune), possibly in distant reference to technologies and cultural practices brought to Japan by the original Chinese immigrants.

PronunciationEdit

Proper nounEdit

(あや) (Aya

  1. short for 漢氏 (Aya uji): name of one of two ancient clans, purportedly descendants from Han Chinese, and notable historically for major achievements in fields including literature, diplomacy, and finance, among others
    1. 東漢 (Yamato no Aya)
    2. 西漢 (Kawachi no Aya)

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
おとこ
Grade: 3
kun’yomi

Rare alternative spelling for (otoko, man), from usage in Chinese to differentiate between the “civilized” people of the Han Chinese ethnicity versus other ethnic groups.

See the entry for the derivation of the reading.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(おとこ) (otoko (historical kana をとこ)

  1. (slang) Rare spelling of (man).
    • 2004 July 7, Watsuki, Nobuhiro, “(だい)26(にじゅうろく)() トレーニング・デイ [Chapter 26: Training Day]”, in ()(ソウ)(レン)(キン) [Armed Alchemy], volume 3, Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN, page 161:
      (おとこ)()(なか)(じん)(せい)(かた)る!キミのベストポーズでスーパーアピール‼
      Otoko wa senaka de jinsei o kataru! Kimi no besuto pōzu de sūpā apīru‼
      Men show what life is with their backs! Strike your best pose to drive home your point!!

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun 한나라 (hannara han))

  1. Hanja form? of (China).
  2. Hanja form? of (man).

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: Hán

  1. Of or relating to China

CompoundsEdit

  1. 漢喃 (Hán Nôm) Vietnamese made Chinese characters