Open main menu

Wiktionary β

U+6C99, 沙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C99

[U+6C98]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C9A]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 85 +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 水火竹 (EFH), four-corner 39120, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 611, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17212
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1005, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 1562, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+6C99

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
ʔsaːlʔ, *sʰaːlʔ, *sraːl
saːl, *saːlʔ
saːl, *sraːl
saːl
saːl
saːl, *sreŋʔ, *seŋʔ
sraːl, *sraːls
sraːl
sraːl
sraːl
sraːl
sraːl
髿 sraːl, *soːl
sraːl, *soːl
soːl
soːl

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sa/see - literary;
  • soa/se - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂa⁵⁵/
Harbin /ʂa⁴⁴/
Tianjin /sɑ²¹/
Jinan /ʂa²¹³/
Qingdao /ʂa²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ʂa²⁴/
Xi'an /sa²¹/
Xining /sa⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂa⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ʂa³¹/
Ürümqi /sa⁴⁴/
Wuhan /sa²¹³/
Chengdu /sa⁵⁵/
Guiyang /sa⁵⁵/
Kunming /ʂa̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /ʂɑ³¹/
Hefei /ʂa²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /sa¹¹/
Pingyao /sɑ¹³/
Hohhot /sa³¹/
Wu Shanghai /so⁵³/
Suzhou /so⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /sɑ³³/
Wenzhou /so³³/
Hui Shexian /sa³¹/
Tunxi /sɔ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /sa³³/
Xiangtan /dɒ³³/
Gan Nanchang /sɑ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /sa⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sɑ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sa⁵³/
Nanning /sa⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sa⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sa⁵⁵/
/sua⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sa⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /suɛ⁵⁴/
/sa⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /sua³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sa²³/
/tua²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (21) (21)
Final () (98) (98)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃˠa/ /ʃˠaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃᵚa/ /ʃᵚaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃa/ /ʃaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂaɨ/ /ʂaɨH/
Li
Rong
/ʃa/ /ʃaH/
Wang
Li
/ʃa/ /ʃaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂa/ /ʂaH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shā shà
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shā
Middle
Chinese
‹ sræ ›
Old
Chinese
/*sˤraj/
English sand

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 11025 11035
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sraːl/ /*sraːls/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. sand
  2. something granular
  3. rough (as sand)
  4. (of a voice) hoarse; husky
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    giu3 dou3 baa2 seng1 saa1 saai3 [Jyutping]
    shout so much that one's voice is all hoarse
  5. (Buddhism) the number 10-8

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
Notes:

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

NounEdit

(hiragana すな, rōmaji suna)

  1. sand

Etymology 2Edit

NounEdit

(hiragana いさご, rōmaji isago)

  1. small rock
  2. sand

Etymology 3Edit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji sa, alternative reading しゃ, rōmaji sha)

  1. Number of units, 1 of 100 million parts.

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(sa) (hangeul , revised sa, McCune-Reischauer sa, Yale sa) [모래 사]

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(sa, , nhểu, xoà, xa, )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit

  • Nom Foundation
  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville