U+6C99, 沙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C99

[U+6C98]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C9A]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 85, +4, 7 strokes, cangjie input 水火竹 (EFH), four-corner 39120, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 611, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17212
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1005, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1562, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+6C99

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
 
放大顯示的沙子,本為一平方釐米

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
   

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (water) + (to lack; to be short of).

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(s/z)a-j (earth, sand). Compare Tibetan (sa, sand) and Burmese သဲ (sai:, sand).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • sa - literary;
  • sai - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • soa/se - vernacular;
    • sa/see - literary.
    Note:
    • sua1 - vernacular;
    • sa1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂa⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ʂa⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /sɑ²¹/
    Jinan /ʂa²¹³/
    Qingdao /ʂa²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /ʂa²⁴/
    Xi'an /sa²¹/
    Xining /sa⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂa⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ʂa³¹/
    Ürümqi /sa⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /sa²¹³/
    Chengdu /sa⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /sa⁵⁵/
    Kunming /ʂa̠⁴⁴/
    Nanjing /ʂɑ³¹/
    Hefei /ʂa²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /sa¹¹/
    Pingyao /sɑ¹³/
    Hohhot /sa³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /so⁵³/
    Suzhou /so⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /sɑ³³/
    Wenzhou /so³³/
    Hui Shexian /sa³¹/
    Tunxi /sɔ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /sa³³/
    Xiangtan /dɒ³³/
    Gan Nanchang /sɑ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /sa⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /sɑ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sa⁵³/
    Nanning /sa⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /sa⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sa⁵⁵/
    /sua⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sa⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /suɛ⁵⁴/
    /sa⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /sua³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sa²³/
    /tua²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (21) (21)
    Final () (98) (98)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () II II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʃˠa/ /ʃˠaH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʃᵚa/ /ʃᵚaH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʃa/ /ʃaH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʂaɨ/ /ʂaɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʃa/ /ʃaH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʃa/ /ʃaH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʂa/ /ʂaH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shā shà
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shā
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sræ ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sˁraj/
    English sand

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 11025 11035
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1 1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sraːl/ /*sraːls/
    DefinitionsEdit

    1. sand
        ―  shā  ―  silt
        ―  shā  ―  desert
    2. something granular
        ―  dòushā  ―  red bean paste
    3. mushy and rough (as sand), texture of a watermelon of good quality.
        ―  shāráng  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)
        ―  shā  ―  Pyrus pyrifolia
      西  ―  shāguā  ―  alternative of 硒砂瓜
    4. (of a voice) hoarse; husky
      /   ―  shā  ―  hoarse
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      giu3 dou3 baa2 seng1 saa1 saai3 [Jyutping]
      shout so much that one's voice is all hoarse
    5. (Buddhism) the number 10-8
    6. Short for 沙皇 (shāhuáng).
        ―  Shā  ―  Russian Empire
    7. A surname​.
    SynonymsEdit
    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (dialectal) to shake in order to gather impurities to be removed

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“sand,; extremely mushy and/or rough, texture of a watermelon of good quality,”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of .)
    Notes:

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    NounEdit

    (すな) (suna

    1. sand

    Etymology 2Edit

    NounEdit

    (いさご) (isago

    1. small rock
    2. sand

    Etymology 3Edit

    NounEdit

    () or (しゃ) (sa or sha

    1. Number of units, 1 of 100 million parts.

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʃˠa, ʃˠaH). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: sa) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 모래 (morae sa))

    1. Hanja form? of (sand).
      Synonym: ( (sa))

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (sa)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit

    • Nom Foundation
    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville