See also: Ille, 'ille, and -ille

Galician edit

Verb edit

ille

  1. inflection of illar:
    1. first/third-person singular present subjunctive
    2. third-person singular imperative

Interlingua edit

Etymology edit

From Latin.

Adjective edit

ille

  1. that

Synonyms edit

Pronoun edit

ille

  1. he

Irish edit

Contraction edit

ille

  1. Contraction of i leith

Further reading edit

Latin edit

Alternative forms edit

  • olle (for the pronoun; archaic)

Etymology edit

From Old Latin olle (he, that) (also ollus, olla), from Proto-Italic *olnos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ol-no- or *h₂l̥-no-, from *h₂el- (beyond, other). Cognate with Latin uls (beyond), alius (other), and alter (the other); Umbrian ulu (to that place), Old Church Slavonic лани (lani, last year, literally in that (year)).

Initial i- from o- has no parallel case and may be owing to contamination from is, iste or due to the palatalizing effect of l exilis.

Pronunciation edit

Determiner edit

ille (feminine illa, neuter illud); demonstrative pronoun (pronominal)

  1. that; those (in the plural)
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 1.153:
      ille regit dictīs animōs et pectora mulcet
      that [man], by having spoken, guides [their] minds and soothes [their] hearts
    • 4th century, St Jerome, Vulgate, Tobit 3:24
      in illo tempore exauditae sunt preces amborum in conspectu gloriae summi Dei
      at that time the prayers of them both were heard in the sight of the glory of the most high God

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Balkan Romance:
    • Romanian: ăl, ăla, aia, ăia, alea, ăluia, ăleia, ălora (regional)
  • Italo-Romance:
    • Central Italian: illi (M.PL)
    • Old Neapolitan: illo (Salentino)
    • Sicilian: iḍḍu
  • Padanian:
    • Ligurian: (Pigna)
    • Piedmontese:
  • Gallo-Romance:
    • Old French: le, la, els (last attested 13th c.)
    • Old Occitan: lo
      • Occitan: le (Toulouse)
  • Ibero-Romance:
    • Spanish: lo
  • Insular Romance:

References edit

  • Sornicola, Rosanna. 2011. Per la storia dei dimostrativi romanzi: i tipi neutri [tso], [so], [ço], [tʃo] e la diacronia dei dimostrativi latini. Zeitschrift für romanische Philologie 127. 1–80. §2.1.2.

Pronoun edit

ille (feminine illa, neuter illud); demonstrative pronoun (pronominal)

  1. that one; that (thing); those ones (in the plural); those (things); he, she, it
  2. (Late Latin) he, she, it (third-person personal pronoun)
    • Late 4th c., Vulgate, Luke 22:38:
      At ille dixit eis: satis est.
      And He said unto them 'It is enough'.

Descendants edit

Article edit

ille (definite) (Late Latin ?, Early Medieval Latin)

  1. the
    • p. 384 CE, Egeria, Itinerarium Egeriae 1.1:
      Intereā ambulantēs peruēnimus ad quendam locum ubi sē tamen montēs illī inter quōs ībāmus aperiēbant
      While we were walking, we arrived at a certain place, where the mountains, through which we went, nevertheless were open

Descendants edit

Usage notes edit

  • This demonstrative determiner/pronoun is used to refer to a person or thing, or persons or things, away from both speaker and listener. It contrasts with hic (this), which refers to people or things near the speaker, and iste (this/that), which refers to people or things near the listener.
  • As Latin had no person pronouns specifically meaning "he", "she" or "it", any of ille, iste, hic or (most frequently) is could assume that function. In Vulgar latin, ille weakened its meaning and frequently came to mean merely "the" (as a determiner) or "he/she/it" (as a pronoun). This is in fact the origin of French le (the) and il (he), Spanish el (the) and él (he), etc. The original meaning of a far demonstrative was maintained when augmented with ecce or eccum, cf. Italian quello, Spanish aquel, Old French cel.
  • In Classical usage, ille can have a secondary, appreciative function of casting the referent in a positive light: ille homō can mean "that (famous/renowned) man". The opposite, pejorative function is assumed by iste, and iste homō frequently means "that (no good) man". Such functions were not present in Vulgar Latin, and iste came to mean "this" (cf. Spanish este, Portuguese este).

Declension edit

Demonstrative pronoun (pronominal).

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ille illa illud illī illae illa
Genitive illī̆us illōrum illārum illōrum
Dative illī illīs
Accusative illum illam illud illōs illās illa
Ablative illō illā illō illīs

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

See also edit

References edit

  • ille”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ille”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • ille in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • Pericles, the greatest man of his day: Pericles summus vir illius aetatis
    • a man of considerable learning for those times: vir ut temporibus illis doctus
    • hence these tears; there's the rub: hinc illae lacrimae (proverb.) (Ter. And. 1. 1. 99; Cael. 25. 61)
    • what will become of him: quid illo fiet?
    • I console myself with..: hoc (illo) solacio me consōlor
    • the memory of this will never fade from my mind: numquam ex animo meo memoria illius rei discedet
    • for a Roman he is decidedly well educated: sunt in illo, ut in homine Romano, multae litterae (De Sen. 4. 12)
    • those views are out of date: illae sententiae evanuerunt
    • those ideas have long ago been given up: illae sententiae iam pridem explosae et eiectae sunt (Fin. 5. 8. 23)
    • Solon, one of the seven sages: Solo, unus de septem (illis)
    • he possesses sound judgment in matters of taste: elegantia in illo est
    • there is a flavour of Atticism about his discourse: ex illius orationibus ipsae Athenae redolent
    • that Greek proverb contains an excellent lesson: bene illo Graecorum proverbio praecipitur
    • my relations with him are most hospitable: mihi cum illo hospitium est, intercedit
    • the aristocracy (as a party in politics): boni cives, optimi, optimates, also simply boni (opp. improbi); illi, qui optimatium causam agunt
    • this much he said: haec (quidem) ille
    • this passage is obscure: hic (ille) locus obscurus est
    • (ambiguous) I console myself with..: haec (illa) res me consolatur
    • (ambiguous) Plato's ideal republic: illa civitas Platonis commenticia
    • (ambiguous) Plato's ideal republic: illa civitas, quam Plato finxit
  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN

Middle English edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Old Norse illr, from Proto-Germanic *ilhilaz.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

ille

  1. evil; wicked

Descendants edit

References edit

Norwegian Bokmål edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Danish ilde. The form ille introduced into Riksmål in 1907, but the form ilde was still used at least until 1919 (e.g. by Kristian Elster).

Adjective edit

ille (indeclinable, comparative verre, indefinite superlative verst, definite superlative verste)

  1. bad

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Norse illa.

Pronunciation edit

  • (Fredrikstad dialect) IPA(key): [ˈɪ̂l̺.l̺ɛ̝]

Adverb edit

ille

  1. badly
  2. (dialect, Fredrikstad) very
    ille bravery good
Derived terms edit

References edit

Norwegian Nynorsk edit

Etymology 1 edit

From the Old Norse adverb illa.

Adverb edit

ille

  1. unlucky, miserably
  2. ill
  3. hurtful, condescending, enemy
  4. (dialectal, Fredrikstad) very
Derived terms edit

Adjective edit

ille

  1. bad

Etymology 2 edit

From the Old Norse verb illa.

Alternative forms edit

Verb edit

ille (present tense illar, past tense illa, past participle illa, passive infinitive illast, present participle illande, imperative ille/ill)

  1. (transitive) to blame, think badly of
  2. (transitive) to anger

Etymology 3 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Adjective edit

ille

  1. definite singular of ill
  2. plural of ill

References edit

Sidamo edit

 
Ille.

Etymology edit

From Proto-Cushitic *ʔil-. Cognates include Burji illa, Hadiyya ille, Kambaata ille and Oromo ija.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈilːe/
  • Hyphenation: il‧le

Noun edit

ille f (plural illuwa f)

  1. eye

References edit

  • Kazuhiro Kawachi (2007) A grammar of Sidaama (Sidamo), a Cushitic language of Ethiopia, page 544

Tatar edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.) Compare Turkish elli, Bashkir илле (ille)

Numeral edit

ille (Cyrillic spelling илле)

  1. fifty