U+57CE, 城
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-57CE

[U+57CD]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+57CF]

城 U+2F852, 城
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F852
壮
[U+2F851]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 埴
[U+2F853]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 32, +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 土戈竹尸 (GIHS), four-corner 43150, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 229, character 32
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5086
  • Dae Jaweon: page 465, character 22
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 438, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+57CE

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *djeŋ) : semantic (soil) + phonetic (OC *djeŋ).

Etymology

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Cognate with (OC *djeŋ, “to complete”), (OC *djeŋ, “to hold with a receptacle”), (OC *djeŋs, “abundant; flourishing”), as (OC *djeŋ, “city wall”) was made of filled-in or stamped earth (Schuessler, 2007). See for more.

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • sing4 - literary;
  • seng4(-2) - vernacular.
Note:
  • sen3 - literary;
  • siang3(*) - vernacular.
Note:
  • sang4 - vernacular;
  • ciin2 - literary.
Note:
  • sêng - literary;
  • iǎng - vernacular (e.g. 浦城).
Note:
  • siàng - vernacular;
  • chiàng - vernacular (e.g. 城門);
  • sìng - literary.
Note:
  • siâⁿ - vernacular;
  • sêng - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (25)
Final () (121)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter dzyeng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑiᴇŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑiɛŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑiæŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑiajŋ/
Li
Rong
/ʑiɛŋ/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭɛŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi̯ɛŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chéng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sing4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
chéng
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzyeng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[d]eŋ/
English city wall

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 1418
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*djeŋ/

Definitions

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  1. city wall
    兵臨兵临  ―  bīnglínchéngxià  ―  the enemy army is just outside of the walls of the city
  2. area within the city walls
    紫禁  ―  Zǐjìnchéng  ―  Forbidden City
  3. city; town
      ―  chéngxiāng  ―  urban and rural areas
  4. large commercial venue
    服裝服装  ―  fúzhuāng chéng  ―  garment mall
    美食  ―  měishí chéng  ―  food court/dining area
  5. (literary) to construct city walls
  6. a surname

See also

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Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (じょう) ()
  • Korean: 성(城) (seong)
  • Vietnamese: thành ()

Others:

References

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Japanese

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Shinjitai  
Kyūjitai
城
&#x2F852;
or
+&#xFE00;?
 
城󠄀
+&#xE0100;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
城󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji

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(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form 城)

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
(shiro, gusuku, ki, shiki, ): a castle.
Kanji in this term
しろ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Derivation unknown. The shiro reading for this character appears in 794 CE when the 山背 (Yamashiro) region was renamed 山城,[1] by Emperor Kanmu, thus applying the shiro reading to the kanji for the first time.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(しろ) (shiro

  1. castle
Usage notes
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The shiro reading may be used most often when this term appears as a standalone noun.

Synonyms
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Etymology 2

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  A user has added this entry to requests for verification(+) with the reason: “An Okinawan word. It's "obsolete" and "Okinawan" (i.e. it's not Japanese), so doesn't that make it not suitable for a Japanese entry?”
If it cannot be verified that this term meets our attestation criteria, it will be deleted. Feel free to edit this entry as normal, but do not remove {{rfv}} until the request has been resolved.
Kanji in this term
ぐすく
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Borrowed from older Okinawan (Modern Okinawan (gushiku)). The final ku may be cognate with mainland Japanese ki (see below).

The initial gu may be cognate with (go, honorific), but it is problematic in that the only honorary prefixes found in Omoro Sōshi are (mi) and (o). Suku may be related to しけ (shike, a holy place) or cognate with (soko, fortress). While written with the kanji for "castle", textual and cultural evidence suggests that the initial primary meaning was a holy place.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ɡɯ̟ᵝsɨᵝkɯ̟ᵝ]

Noun

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(ぐすく) (gusuku

  1. (obsolete, Okinawa) castle
Usage notes
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Not used in isolation in modern Japanese. This term remains as an element in various place names.

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling

ki2: [kɨ] > [ki]

From Old Japanese, from Baekje (*kɨ, walled settlement).[3]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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() (ki

  1. (archaic) a structure surrounded by a moat or walls: a fortress, castle
    • c. 759, Man’yōshū, book 20, poem 4331:
      天皇乃 等保能朝[廷]等 之良奴日 筑紫國波 安多麻毛流 於佐倍乃曽等 聞食 四方國尓波 比等佐波尓 美知弖波安礼杼 登利我奈久 安豆麻乎能故波 伊田牟可比 加敝里見世受弖 伊佐美多流 多家吉軍卒等 祢疑多麻比 麻氣乃麻尓々々 多良知祢乃 波々我目可礼弖 若草能 都麻乎母麻可受 安良多麻能 月日餘美都々 安之我知流 難波能美津尓 大船尓 末加伊之自奴伎 安佐奈藝尓 可故等登能倍 由布思保尓 可知比伎乎里 安騰母比弖 許藝由久伎美波 奈美乃間乎 伊由伎佐具久美 麻佐吉久母 波夜久伊多里弖 大王乃 美許等能麻尓末 麻須良男乃 許己呂乎母知弖 安里米具[理] 事之乎波良[婆] 都々麻波受 可敝理伎麻勢登 伊波比倍乎 等許敝尓須恵弖 之路多倍能 蘇田遠利加敝之 奴婆多麻乃 久路加美之伎弖 奈我伎氣遠 麻知可母戀牟 波之伎都麻良波
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
    • 787-824: Nihon Ryōiki (preface, page 201)
      原夫内経外書 伝於日本 而興始代 凡有二時 皆自百済国将禮來之 軽嶋豊明宮御宇誉田天皇代 外書來之 礒城嶋金刺宮御宇鉄明天皇代 内典來也 [...]
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
しき
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
磯城

Originally a compound of (shi, stone) +‎ (ki, castle, fortress).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(しき) (shiki

  1. (archaic) a castle, a fortress

Etymology 5

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Kanji in this term
じょう
Grade: 4
goon

/zjau/ → */ʑɔː//d͡ʑoː/

From Middle Chinese (MC dzyeng). Compare modern Min Nan reading siâⁿ.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(じょう) (じやう (zyau)?

  1. a castle, a fortress
    (もり)(おか)(じょう)
    Morioka-
    Morioka Castle

See also

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References

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  1. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ John Bentley (2000) “New Look at Paekche and Korean: Data from Nihon shoki”, in Language Research[1], volume 36, number 2, Seoul National University, pages 417—443

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC dzyeng).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 쎠ᇰ (Yale: ssyèng)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] 잣〮 (Yale: cás) 셔ᇰ (Yale: syèng)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (jae seong))

  1. Hanja form? of (castle).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

Okinawan

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Noun

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(ぐしく) (gushiku

  1. a gusuku (Ryukyuan castle)
    • 1531-1623: Omoro Sōshi
      一 聞得大君ぎや 降れて 遊びよわれば 天が下 平らげて ちよわれ 又 鳴響む精高子が 又 首里杜ぐすく 真玉杜ぐすく
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  2. a word used in placenames
    (なか)(ぐしく)からやいびーん。
    Nakagushiku kara yaibīn.
    I am from Nakagusuku.

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: thành, nhật

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.