U+5229, 利
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5229

[U+5228]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+522A]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 18, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 竹木中弓 (HDLN), four-corner 22900, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 138, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1932
  • Dae Jaweon: page 313, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 329, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5229

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (grain) + (knife) – to reap grain () with a knife ().

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ri:t (to reap, scrape, shave, cut, sever) (STEDT, Schuessler, 2007); cognate to Mizo rîit (to scrap with a hoe), Western Gurung [script needed] (wriqba, to scratch), Burmese ရိတ် (rit, to cut, reap, mow shave)

PronunciationEdit


Note: lê - sense “sharp” only.
Note:
  • lāi - vernacular;
  • lī - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (15)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /liɪH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /liH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ljɪH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /liH/
    Li
    Rong
    /liH/
    Wang
    Li
    /liH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /liH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    lei6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ lijH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.ri[t]-s/
    English sharp; profit

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7898
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*rids/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. benefit; advantage
    2. (finance) interest
    3. to benefit; to be beneficial to
    4. favourable; successful
    5. sharp; sharp-edged
    6. A surname​.
      [Cantonese]  ―  lei6 hei1 san6 [Jyutping]  ―  Lee Hysan (Hong Kong businessman involved in opium trade)

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. profit, benefit

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (lijH, profit).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (ri

    1. profit, benefit, advantage

    AntonymsEdit

    VerbEdit

    ()する (ri surusuru (stem () (ri shi), past ()した (ri shita))

    1. to benefit

    ConjugationEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 이로울 (iroul ri), South Korea 이로울 (iroul i))

    1. Hanja form? of (benefit).

    CompoundsEdit


    Old KoreanEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (*-i) (gugyeol abbreviation)
    • (*-i)
    • (*-i) (semantically adapted phonogram, potential variant)

    ParticleEdit

    (*-i)

    1. and (connecting particle for nouns)
      • mid-6th century, Wooden Tablet #221 from Seongsan Sanseong, Haman:
        人嗚
        many people [lit. people and people] lamented
      • c. 965, 均如 (Gyunyeo), “隨喜功德歌 (Suhuigongdeok-ga)”, in 均如傳 (Gyunyeo-jeon) [Works of Gyunyeo]:
        衆生毛叱所只
        so that there is no [more] "Buddha and the sentient beings"
      • 10th century, Interpretive jeomto gugyeol glosses to Volume 20 of the Jinbon Avatamsaka Sutra:
        一切諸佛菩薩
        Each and every Buddha and bodhisattva

    Usage notesEdit

    (*-i) was used to denote particularly intimate connections between nouns, compared to (*-kwa) which had a more general use. The particle was totally extinct by the fifteenth century, and has no known Middle Korean reflex.

    The sixth-century attestation given above is the reading of the tablet by linguist Lee Seungjae, who is the only person so far to have interpreted the text. It is possible that future interpreters will analyze differently.

    See alsoEdit

    • (*-kwa, and; with, comitative case marker)

    ReferencesEdit

    • 박진호 (Bak Jin-ho) (2007), “Hyangga haedok-gwa gugeo munbeopsa [Hyangga interpretations and the history of Korean grammar]”, in Gugeohak, volume 51, pages 313–338
    • 이승재 (Lee Seungjae) (2017) Mokgan-e girokdoen Godae Han'gugeo [The Old Korean Language Inscribed on Wooden Tablets)], Ilchogak, →ISBN

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: lợi[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: lời[1][2][3][4], lợi[1][2][3], rời[1][2], rơi[1], ráy[1], [3]

    1. Hán tự form of lợi (profit).
    2. Nôm form of lời (profit; interest).

    ReferencesEdit