U+5229, 利
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5229

[U+5228]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+522A]
U+F9DD, 利
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9DD

[U+F9DC]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9DE]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 18, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 竹木中弓 (HDLN), four-corner 22900, composition )

Derived characters

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Descendants

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 138, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1932
  • Dae Jaweon: page 313, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 329, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5229

Chinese

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simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (grain) + (knife) – to reap grain () with a knife ().

Etymology

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From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ri:t (to reap, scrape, shave, cut, sever) (STEDT, Schuessler, 2007); cognate to Mizo rîit (to scrap with a hoe), Western Gurung [script needed] (wriqba, to scratch), Burmese ရိတ် (rit, to cut, reap, mow shave).

Pronunciation 1

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Note: lei6-2 - in 貴利贵利 and as the second syllable in two-character business names.
Note: lê - sense “sharp” only.
Note:
  • lāi - vernacular;
  • lī - literary.
Note:
  • li6 - literary;
  • lai7 - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (15)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter lijH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/liɪH/
Pan
Wuyun
/liH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ljɪH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/liH/
Li
Rong
/liH/
Wang
Li
/liH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/liH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
lei6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ lijH ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.ri[t]-s/
English sharp; profit

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7898
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*rids/

Definitions

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  1. benefit; advantage
  2. profit
    多銷多销  ―  duōxiāo  ―  small profits but quick returns
  3. (finance) interest
      ―  gāodài  ―  usury; high-interest loan
  4. to benefit; to be beneficial to
  5. favourable; successful
  6. sharp; sharp-edged
  7. a surname
    [Cantonese]  ―  lei6 hei1 san6 [Jyutping]  ―  Lee Hysan (Hong Kong opium merchant)

Synonyms

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (ri)
  • Korean: /(利) (ri/i)
  • Vietnamese: lợi ()

Others:

Pronunciation 2

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Definitions

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  1. Used in 利市 (“red packets”).
  2. (Cantonese) Used in 老利 (lou5 lai6-2).

Compounds

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Further reading

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. profit, benefit

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC lijH, “profit”).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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() (ri

  1. profit, benefit, advantage

Antonyms

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Verb

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()する (ri surusuru (stem () (ri shi), past ()した (ri shita))

  1. to benefit

Conjugation

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References

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  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 이로울 (iroul ri), word-initial (South Korea) 이로울 (iroul i))

  1. Hanja form? of (benefit).

Compounds

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Old Korean

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Alternative forms

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  • (*-i) (gugyeol abbreviation)
  • (*-i)
  • (*-i) (semantically adapted phonogram, potential variant)

Particle

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(*-i)

  1. and (connecting particle for nouns)
    • mid-6th century, Wooden Tablet #221 from Seongsan Sanseong, Haman:
      人嗚
      many people [lit. people and people] lamented
    • c. 965, 均如 (Gyunyeo), “隨喜功德歌 (Suhuigongdeok-ga)”, in 均如傳 (Gyunyeo-jeon) [Works of Gyunyeo]:
      衆生毛叱所只
      so that there is no [more] "Buddha and the sentient beings"
    • 10th century, Interpretive jeomto gugyeol glosses to Volume 20 of the Jinbon Avatamsaka Sutra:
      一切諸佛菩薩
      Each and every Buddha and bodhisattva

Usage notes

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(*-i) was used to denote particularly intimate connections between nouns, compared to (*-kwa) which had a more general use. The particle was totally extinct by the fifteenth century, and has no known Middle Korean reflex.

The sixth-century attestation given above is the reading of the tablet by linguist Lee Seungjae, who is the only person so far to have interpreted the text. It is possible that future interpreters will analyze differently.

See also

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  • (*-kwa, and; with, comitative case marker)

References

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  • 박진호 (Bak Jin-ho) (2007) “향가 해독과 국어 문법사 [Hyangga haedok-gwa gugeo munbeopsa, Hyangga interpretations and the history of Korean grammar]”, in Gugeohak, volume 51, pages 313–338
  • 이승재 (Lee Seungjae) (2017) 木簡에 기록된 古代 韓國語 [Mokgan-e girokdoen Godae Han'gugeo, The Old Korean Language Inscribed on Wooden Tablets)], Ilchogak, →ISBN

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: lợi[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: lời[1][2][3][4], lợi[1][2][3], rời[1][2], rơi[1], ráy[1], [3], rị, lệ

  1. chữ Hán form of lợi (profit).
  2. Nôm form of lời (profit; interest).

References

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