See also:
U+679C, 果
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-679C

[U+679B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+679D]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 75, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 田木 (WD), four-corner 60904, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 516, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14556
  • Dae Jaweon: page 904, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1168, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+679C

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Pictogram (象形) – fruit on a tree.

Etymology 1 edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Possibly related to (OC *ɡ·roːlʔ, *ɡ·roːnʔ, “egg”) (Sagart and Ma, 2020).

Pronunciation edit


Note: gu2 - rare.
Note:
  • guōi - vernacular;
  • guō - literary.
Note:
  • kér/ké/kóe - vernacular;
  • kó͘/kó - literary.
    • (Teochew)
      • Peng'im: guê2 / guên2 / guain2 / guan2
      • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: kué / kuéⁿ / kuáiⁿ / kuáⁿ
      • Sinological IPA (key): /kue⁵²/, /kũẽ⁵²/, /kũãĩ⁵²/, /kũã⁵²/
Note:

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (95)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter kwaX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuɑX/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuɑX/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɑX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kwaX/
Li
Rong
/kuɑX/
Wang
Li
/kuɑX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuɑX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
guǒ
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gwo2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
guǒ
Middle
Chinese
‹ kwaX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ˁo[r]ʔ/
English fruit; result

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4767
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kloːlʔ/

Definitions edit

  1. fruit
      ―  shuǐguǒ  ―  fruit
      ―  píngguǒ  ―  apple
  2. result
      ―  jiéguǒ  ―  result
      ―  hòuguǒ  ―  consequence
  3. sure enough; really
      ―  guǒrán  ―  as expected
      ―  guǒzhēn  ―  really
  4. determined
      ―  guǒgǎn  ―  resolute and courageous
  5. to fill
      ―  guǒ  ―  to fill one's stomach
  6. to come true
      ―  guǒ  ―  to be unsuccessful
  7. (literary) finally; at last
  8. (literary) actually
    Synonyms: 究竟 (jiūjìng), 終究终究 (zhōngjiū)
  9. (literary) if indeed; if
  10. a surname
Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to wrap; to bind; to encircle; confine; to carry off; etc.”).
(This character is the second-round simplified form of ).
Notes:

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term

Grade: 4
on’yomi

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (kuɑX).

Pronunciation edit

Counter edit

() (-kaくわ (kwa)?

  1. pieces of fruit

Noun edit

() (kaくわ (kwa)?

  1. fruit
  2. (Buddhism) phala, attained state, result
  3. (Buddhism) enlightenment (as the fruits of one's Buddhist practice)

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 열매 (yeolmae gwa))

  1. Hanja form? of (fruit).
  2. Hanja form? of (result).

Compounds edit

Old Korean edit

Particle edit

(*-kwa)

  1. and; with (comitative case marker; attached to multiple connected nouns)
    • c. 1250, Interpretive gugyeol glosses to the Humane King Sutra:
      灌頂三品士
      *TUNG-kwa HYEY-kwa KWANTYENG-kwa-s SAMPHWUMSO-n
      As for the three gentlemen of Dengguan and Huiguang and Guanding
      (N.B. Gugyeol glyphs are given in non-abbreviated forms.)

Usage notes edit

果 follows the grammatical rules of its Middle Korean descendant, which differ from Modern Korean usage. Thus it may be followed by other case markers, such as . Furthermore, in both Old and Middle Korean, "A and B" is expressed as A-kwa B-kwa, instead of Modern Korean A-kwa B.

Unlike in Middle and Modern Korean, 果 did not take any allomorph following a vowel. The Middle Korean allomorph (Yale: -Gwa) was produced by the lenition of Old Korean *k to /ɣ/ between vowels.

Descendants edit

  • Middle Korean: (-kwa)
    • Korean: (-gwa)
  • Middle Korean: (-Gwa) (allomorph following a vowel, produced by intervocalic lenition of *-k)
    • Korean: (-wa)

See also edit

  • (*-li, intimate connective particle)

References edit

  • 이승재 (Lee Seung-jae) (2000) “차자표기 자료의 격조사 연구 [Chaja pyogi jaryo-ui gyeokjosa yeon'gu, Study of case markers in the Chinese-based orthography [of Korean]]”, in Gugeo Gukmunhak, volume 127, pages 107–132

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: quả, hủ

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.