り (romaji ri)
- The hiragana syllable り (ri). Its equivalent in katakana is リ (ri). It is the fortieth syllable in the gojūon order; its position is ら行い段 (ra-gyō i-dan, “row ra, section i”).
|The Hiragana script|
The -i ending of the preceding verb stem contracted with the initial a- in ari to form -eri, which was reanalyzed as the 已然形 (izenkei, “realis form”, corresponding to the modern hypothetical form) or 命令形 (meireikei, “imperative form”) of the verb stem for 四段活用 (yodan katsuyō, “quadrigrade conjugation”) verbs, or the 未然形 (mizenkei, “irrealis or incomplete form”) for サ変動詞 (sa-hen dōshi, “sa-irregular verbs”), all of which ended in -e, with the final -ri then viewed as a suffix.
- Example: 降り (furi, continuative stem of 降る (furu)) + あり (ari) → 降れり (fureri), reanalyzed as 降れ (fure, realis or imperative form of 降る (furu)) + り (-ri)
Research into 上代特殊仮名遣い (jōdai tokushu kanazukai, “ancient special spellings”) clarified the -e vowel value as ⟨e1⟩, showing that the original form could not have been the 已然形 (izenkei, “realis form”) that ended in ⟨e2⟩. Ancient ⟨e1⟩ was also known to appear from fusion of -i and a-, and this revealed the much simpler original structure of a verb in the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, “continuative or stem form”) for either quadrigrade or sa-irregular verbs + あり (ari).
- In Tokyo speech, the verb + り (-ri) construction always has the accent on the penultimate mora, regardless of the underlying verb. This is also true if the suffix appears in the adnominal form る (-ru).
- (archaic) Used to form the stative of verbs: did; have done
- shinsekai yori kitareri
- hath come from the new world
- zuhan o shōryaku seru chōrui mokuroku
- an ornithological catalogue with illustrations omitted
Attaches by changing the -u of godan verbs to -eri, suru to seri, and kuru to keri. The result can be further conjugated like an r-irregular verb; for example, the adnominal form ends in -eru.
|Word||dictionary form||-eri form||-eru form|
|godan verbs (type 1)|
|書く||かく (káꜜkù)||かけり (kàkéꜜrì)||かける (kàkéꜜrù)|
|泳ぐ||およぐ (òyóꜜgù)||およげり (òyógéꜜrì)||およげる (òyógéꜜrù)|
|話す||はなす (hànáꜜsù)||はなせり (hànáséꜜrì)||はなせる (hànáséꜜrù)|
|待つ||まつ (máꜜtsù)||まてり (màtéꜜrì)||まてる (màtéꜜrù)|
|死ぬ||しぬ (shìnú)||しねり (shìnéꜜrì)||しねる (shìnéꜜrù)|
|呼ぶ||よぶ (yòbú)||よべり (yòbéꜜrì)||よべる (yòbéꜜrù)|
|読む||よむ (yóꜜmù)||よめり (yòméꜜrì)||よめる (yòméꜜrù)|
|作る||つくる (tsùkúꜜrù)||つくれり (tsùkúréꜜrì)||つくれる (tsùkúréꜜrù)|
|買う||かう (kàú)||かえり (kàéꜜrì)||かえる (kàéꜜrù)|
|irregular verbs (type 3)|
|する||する (sùrú)||せり (séꜜrì)||せる (séꜜrù)|
|くる||くる (kúꜜrù)||けり (kéꜜrì)||ける (kéꜜrù)|
The adnominal form of the ending, -eru, is easily confused with the potential ending for godan verbs. Note that the former is always accented, but the latter is only accented when the underlying verb is.
- Unaccented verb 買う (/kàú/): stative /kàéꜜrù/, potential /kàérú/
- Accented verb 読む (/yóꜜmù/): stative and potential /yòméꜜrù/
In Classical Japanese, this ending is usually not used on r-irregular verbs, because it is a contraction of -i + ari and r-irregular verbs already incorporate an etymological ari.
- たり (tari)
Used to form adverbs from some onomatopoeias or ideophones. Appears to have been productive up through the Early Middle Japanese of the late Heian period, possibly also in the early stages of the Late Middle Japanese of the Kamakura period. In the modern language, this suffix persists in existing words, but it is not used to form any new words.
- (non-productive) adverb-forming suffix following some onomatopoeias or ideophones
- In modern usage, many of these adverbs exhibit gemination, as shown above.
- Parallel forms may include reduplication of the root onomatopoeia or ideophone, or the root plus adverbial と (to), often also exhibiting gemination:
- In most cases, these different forms constitute a cluster of synonyms based on the core meaning of the root onomatopoeia or ideophone.
|For pronunciation and definitions of り – see the following entries.|
|(This term, り, is an alternative spelling of the above Sino-Japanese terms.|
For a list of all kanji read as り, not just those used in Japanese terms, see Category:Japanese kanji read as り.)