See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 40 +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 十手十口 (JQJR) or 十手一口 (JQMR), four-corner 30601, composition)

  1. damage, harm, injure
    Antonyms : ,
  2. kill

Derived charactersEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 286, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7165
  • Dae Jaweon: page 565, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 929, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+5BB3

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xai⁵¹/
Harbin /xai⁵³/
/xai²¹³/ ~怕
Tianjin /xai⁵³/
Jinan /xɛ²¹/
Qingdao /xɛ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xai³¹²/
Xi'an /xai⁴⁴/
Xining /xɛ²¹³/
Yinchuan /xɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /xɛ¹³/
Ürümqi /xai²¹³/
Wuhan /xai³⁵/
Chengdu /xai¹³/
Guiyang /xai²¹³/
Kunming /xæ²¹²/
Nanjing /xae⁴⁴/
Hefei /xe̞⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /xai⁴⁵/
Pingyao /xæ³⁵/
Hohhot /xɛ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ɦe¹³/
Suzhou /ɦe̞³¹/
Hangzhou /ɦe̞¹³/
Wenzhou /ɦe²²/
Hui Shexian /xɛ²²/
Tunxi /xuə¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xai⁵⁵/
/xai¹¹/
Xiangtan /ɦai²¹/
Gan Nanchang /hai²¹/
Hakka Meixian /hoi⁵³/
Taoyuan /hoi⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɔi²²/
Nanning /hɔi²²/
Hong Kong /hɔi²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hai²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hɑi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xuɛ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hai³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hai³³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (33)
Final: (25)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: hài
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɦɑiH/ /ɦɑiH/ /ɣɑiH/ /ɦajH/ /ɣɑiH/ /ɣɑiH/ /ɣɑiH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
hài ‹ hajH › /*N-kˤat-s/ be hurt (v.i.); injury (n.)
hài ‹ hajH › /*m-kˤat-s/ hurt (v.t.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4845 1 /*ɡaːds/ 𥎆

VerbEdit

  1. to harm, to maim, to injure

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. damage, harm, injure
  2. kill
  3. disaster

ReadingsEdit

Kanji in this term
がい
Grade: 4
on'yomi

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese ‎(hajH, injury).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana がい, romaji gai)

  1. injury, harm, damage

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(hae, hal) (hangeul , , revised hae, hal, McCune-Reischauer hae, hal)

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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hại)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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