(common “Jōyō” kanji)
From Old Japanese. Attested in the 日本書紀 (Nihon Shoki), completed in 720 and one of the earliest works written in Japanese (see Wikipedia:Nihon Shoki), with a meaning of bed.
According to the 和句解 (Wakuge), published in 1668 by early Edo-period scholar Matsunaga Teitoku (松永貞徳; see Wikipedia:ja:松永貞徳), derives from ゆか (yuka) as the 未然形 (mizenkei, “irrealis form”) stem of the verb 行く (yuku, “to go”) of an original meaning similar to "not going", in reference to a place where one sits down to rest.
床 • (yuka)
- the floor (the bottom surface of a room)
- yuka o haku
- to sweep the floor
- a bed
- (theater) a raised area of a stage where a presenter or musician sits
- a raised platform erected along the Kamo River in Kyōto in summer, used as an outdoor tea shop or restaurant
⟨to2ko2⟩ → /toko/
From Old Japanese. Cognate with 所 (tokoro, “place”). Attested since at least the Nara period, appearing in the Man'yōshū, completed in 759.
床 • (toko)
- a raised platform roughly 30cm tall used in dirt-floored rooms as a seat
- a raised area on which to sleep: a bed
- a sickbed
- the floor
- tatami mats
- the seat of an oxcart
- short for 床間 / 床の間 (toko no ma): an alcove with a raised floor along one wall of a traditional Japanese living room
- an alcove with a raised floor used as a study: see 付書院 (tsuke shoin)
- a box seat, such as at a parade, theater, or stadium
- short for 床店 (tokomise): a stall with a raised floor used as a store
- short for 床屋 (tokoya): a barbershop, from how such shops were historically often tokomise
- short for 床船梁 (toko funabari), 舵床 (kajidoko): the large wooden beam at the very aft of a traditional wood-hulled Japanese ship, upon which the rudder is seated
- the heel of a plough; the part of the bottom of a plough that touches the ground and guides the ploughshare
- short for 苗床 (naedoko): a seedbed
- short for 鉄床, 金床 (kanatoko): an anvil
/ʑau/ → /ɕau/ → /ɕɔː/ → /ɕoː/
From Middle Chinese 床 (MC d͡ʒɨɐŋ). Devoicing apparently occurred after borrowing.
床 • (shō)
床 • (-shō) ←しやう (syau)?
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
- ^ 1988, 国語大辞典（新装版） (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
- ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4331), text here