See also:
U+5C07, 將
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5C07

[U+5C06]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5C08]

Translingual

edit
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Han character

edit

(Kangxi radical 41, +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 女一月木戈 (VMBDI), four-corner 27242, composition 𱼀)

Derived characters

edit
edit

Further reading

edit
  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 294, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7438
  • Dae Jaweon: page 583, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2375, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+5C07

Chinese

edit
trad.
simp. *
alternative forms 𢪇
𢪽
𤕭

Glyph origin

edit

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : semantic (bed; small table) + semantic (meat) + semantic (hand) – to offer meat as tribute by putting it on the table.

The component is on its side, hence resembles with an added dot; compare , .

Shuowen erroneously considers the phonetic component of to be (OC *ʔsaŋs, “sauce”) (abbreviated).

Etymology

edit

A conflation of two roots: “to take; to hold” and “will; be going to; near”.

“to take; to hold” (Pronunciations 1, 2 and 3)
Sino-Tibetan: compare Tibetan འཆང ('chang, to hold, to keep, to carry).
“will; be going to; near” (Pronunciation 1)
Austroasiatic: compare Khmer ចង់ (cɑng, to want, to wish; to approach, to draw near; about to (do something), on the point of) < Old Khmer caṅa (to wish, to want). Cognate with (OC *sʰjaːʔ, *ʔsa, “about to; on the point of; moreover; also”) (Wu, 2015).
anteposed object introductory particle
Pulleyblank (1995) notes that 將 as well as several other particles like (OC *ɢʷi, *ɢʷiʔ) and (OC *pliɡ) could in Early Classical Chinese topicalize a noun phrase, including predicate objects who are recapitulated with the verb by the pronoun (OC *djeʔ), leading effectively to a construction in the form of "將 O 是 V" ("to V O"), which he notes is superficially similar to the later colloquial usage of 將 and 把.

Pronunciation 1

edit


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (13)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter tsjang
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sɨɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡siɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡siɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sɨaŋ/
Li
Rong
/t͡siaŋ/
Wang
Li
/t͡sĭaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡si̯aŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiāng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zoeng1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiāng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsjang ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ts]aŋ/
English bring

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 10286
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsaŋ/

Definitions

edit

  1. will; going to
      ―  jiānglái  ―  future [lit. will come]
    人類滅絕人类灭绝  ―  Rénlèi jiāng mièjué ma?  ―  Will humans go extinct?
  2. soon; in the near future
  3. nearly; almost
    1. 78th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "on the verge" (𝍓)
  4. just; just now
  5. certainly; surely
  6. to take; to hold; to fetch
  7. by; by means of; with
  8. also; half ... half ...; or
  9. if; in the case that ...
  10. Particle introducing the object of the verb, used in the same fashion as but more formal.
      ―  jiāng fàn zuò hǎo  ―  to make the food ready
    醫生医生  ―  jiāng yīshēng qǐng lái  ―  to send for a doctor
  11. to support; to assist
  12. to advance; to go
  13. to take orders; to follow
  14. to see off; to send off
  15. to take along; to bring
  16. to use; to utilise
  17. to handle; to deal with
  18. to eat; to have
  19. to lead; to guide
      ―  jiāngjūn  ―  military general
  20. to submit to; to be obedient to
  21. to provide for
  22. to recuperate; to maintain; to take care of one's health
  23. to express; to convey
  24. (dialectal) to incite someone to action
  25. (dialectal, of animals) to bear (an offspring); to give birth
  26. (chess) to check
      ―  jiāng  ―  to checkmate
  27. (obsolete or dialectal) Particle placed after the verb and before a resultative phrase (進來, 起來, 進去 etc.).
    出來出来  ―  zǒu jiāng chūlái  ―  to walk out
    起來起来  ―  chàng jiāng qǐlái  ―  to start to sing
  28. (Hong Kong) Short for 將軍澳将军澳 (Jiāngjūn'ào, “Tseung Kwan O”).
Synonyms
edit

Usage notes

edit

In Cantonese, when used for introducing the object of a verb, the action should involve a change or movement of the object.

Compounds

edit

Pronunciation 2

edit


Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (13)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter tsjangH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sɨɐŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡siɐŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡siɑŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sɨaŋH/
Li
Rong
/t͡siaŋH/
Wang
Li
/t͡sĭaŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡si̯aŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiàng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zoeng3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiàng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsjangH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ts]aŋ-s/
English lead (v.); leader

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 10294
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ʔsaŋs/

Definitions

edit

  1. to command; to lead
  2. (military) general
  3. high-ranking military officer
  4. (xiangqi) general; king (on the black side)
  5. (figurative) dab hand (at something); capable person
Coordinate terms
edit

Compounds

edit

Pronunciation 3

edit

Definitions

edit

  1. to ask; to request; to invite
  2. Used in 將將将将.

Compounds

edit

Descendants

edit
Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (しょう) (shō)
  • Korean: 장(將) (jang)
  • Vietnamese: tướng (), tương ()

References

edit

Japanese

edit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

edit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. Kyūjitai form of

Readings

edit

From (MC tsjang, “just now; also, half... half..., or; take, hold; etc.”):

From (MC tsjangH, “command, lead; commander, general; high-ranking military officer”):

Nanori readings:

Etymology

edit
Kanji in this term
Jinmeiyō
nanori

Nominalization of verb 勝る (masaru, to excel, rival, surpass).

Pronunciation

edit

Proper noun

edit

(まさる) (Masaru

  1. a male given name

Korean

edit

Alternative forms

edit

Etymology 1

edit

From Middle Chinese (MC tsjangH, “commander”).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 쟈ᇰ〮 (Yale: cyáng)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 자ᇰ〯슈〮 (Yale: cyǎngsywú) 쟈ᇰ〯 (Yale: cyǎng)

Pronunciation

edit
  • (in 장군 (將軍, janggun)):
  • (general; commander; etc.):
    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕa̠(ː)ŋ]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja

edit
Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 장수(將帥) (jangsu jang))

  1. Hanja form? of (general; commander). [noun]
Compounds
edit

Etymology 2

edit

From Middle Chinese (MC tsjang, “to take; to hold”).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 쟈ᇰ (Yale: cyàng)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] 쟈ᇰᄎᆞ〮 (Yale: cyàngchá) 쟈ᇰ (Yale: cyàng)

Pronunciation

edit

Hanja

edit

(eumhun 장차(將次) (jangcha jang))

  1. Hanja form? of (take, hold; from now on, in the future). [affix]
Compounds
edit

References

edit
  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

Old Japanese

edit

Alternative forms

edit

Etymology

edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Adverb

edit

(pata) (kana はた)

  1. by chance
  2. also

Derived terms

edit

Descendants

edit

Vietnamese

edit

Han character

edit

: Hán Việt readings: tướng ((tử)(lượng)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], tương (()(lương)(thiết))[2][3][4][5]
: Nôm readings: tướng[1][2][4][6], tương[2][3][7][4]

Etymology 1

edit

Noun

edit

(tướng) (tương)

  1. Chữ Hán form of tướng ((military) general; commander).
  2. Chữ Hán form of tướng ((xiangqi) a piece labeled with the character in black).
Derived terms
edit

Etymology 2

edit

Adverb

edit

(tương)

  1. Chữ Hán form of tương (soon; in the near future).
Derived terms
edit

References

edit