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Contents

TranslingualEdit

EtymologyEdit

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  + .

Han characterEdit

(radical 109 +4, 9 strokes, cangjie input 木月山 (DBU), four-corner 46900, composition)

  1. A surname​.
  2. the original four frets on the pipa

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 800, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 23151
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1216, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2470, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+76F8

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (16) (16)
Final () (105) (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/sɨɐŋ/ /sɨɐŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/siɐŋ/ /siɐŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/siɑŋ/ /siɑŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sɨaŋ/ /sɨaŋH/
Li
Rong
/siaŋ/ /siaŋH/
Wang
Li
/sĭaŋ/ /sĭaŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯aŋ/ /si̯aŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiāng xiàng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiāng xiàng
Middle
Chinese
‹ sjang › ‹ sjangH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s]aŋ/ /*[s]aŋ-s/
English mutually appearance, quality

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 13579 13586
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*slaŋ/ /*slaŋs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. mutual, reciprocal, towards each other
      ―  xiàngwàng  ―  to look at each other
      ―  xiàngféng  ―  to meet by chance

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. mutual, reciprocal, with one another
  2. appearance, look

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Old Japanese stem form of verb あう: to meet, to be together, etc.

PronunciationEdit

PrefixEdit

‎(hiragana あい, romaji ai-)

  1. mutual, together, each other, meeting
    兄弟 (きょうだい)はいつも (あい) (たたか)うものだ。
    Kyōdai wa itsumo ai-tatakau mono da.
    Brothers (siblings) will always fight (with each other).

SuffixEdit

‎(hiragana あい, romaji -ai)

  1. mutual, together, each other, meeting
Usage notesEdit

Generally,  () ‎() when used as a prefix,  () ‎(合i) when used as a suffix.

Etymology 2Edit

Originally a compound of Old Japanese elements ‎(ko, this) +‎ ‎(mo, too) +‎ ‎(ko, this) +‎ ‎(mo, too). Appears as komokomo in older texts, evolving into komogomo in modern Japanese.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

AdverbEdit

‎(hiragana こもごも, romaji komogomo)

  1. alternating, one after another
    悲喜 (ひき) (こもごも)
    hiki komogomo
    sadness and happiness one after anothermixed feelings
  2. all mixed up and indistinct
     (こもごも) (かんが)える
    komogomo kangaeru
    to be mixed up in one's thoughts, to think confusedly
Usage notesEdit

Most often seen spelled in hiragana as こもごも. May also be spelled variously as 交交, , .

Etymology 3Edit

From Old Japanese.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana さが, romaji saga)

  1. nature, personality
  2. fate, destiny
  3. a habit, custom, or practice
  4. the good and bad of a person; especially, one's faults
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

From Middle Chinese, deriving from the meaning of with from the way that a minister would always be with their lord. Kan'on, so likely a later borrowing than the reading.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

‎(hiragana しょう, romaji -shō, historical hiragana しゃう)

  1. minister of state
     (しゅ) (しょう)
    shushō
    prime minister
     (ない) (しょう)
    naishō
    minister of the interior
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 5Edit

From Middle Chinese. Goon, so likely an earlier borrowing than the shō reading.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana そう, romaji , historical hiragana さう)

  1. appearance, how something looks
  2. an aspect of something
    大自然 (だいしぜん)色々 (いろいろ) (そう)
    daishizen no iroiro na
    various aspects of nature
  3. (grammar) grammatical aspect
  4. (physics) a phase, as of matter
  5. (ikebana) the central supporting branch of an ikebana arrangement
Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(sang) (hangeul , revised sang, McCune-Reischauer sang, Yale sang)

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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(tương, tướng, rương)

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