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See also:
U+82DF, 苟
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-82DF

[U+82DE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+82E0]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 140, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 廿心口 (TPR), four-corner 44627, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1023, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30790
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1482, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3194, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+82DF

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. #
 
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Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*koː, *koːs
*koː
*koː, *ɡo
*koː, *koːs, *kos, *ɡo
*koː, *koːs, *kʰoː
*koː, *koːʔ, *koʔ
*koː, *koːs, *ɡo
*koːʔ
*koːʔ
*koːʔ, *ko
*koːʔ
*koːʔ
*koːʔ
豿 *koːʔ, *qʰroːɡ
*koːʔ
*koːs, *kʰoːs, *qʰoːs, *kos
*koːs
*kʰoːʔ, *kʰoʔ
*qʰoː
*qʰoːʔ, *qʰos
*qʰoːʔ, *ɡo
*qʰoːs
*qʰoːs, *ɡoːs
*qʰoːs
*ko
*ko
*ko
*ko
*ko
*ko
*koʔ, *kos
*kos, *ɡo
*kos
*ɡo
*ɡo
*ɡo
*ɡo
*ɡo
*ɡo
*ɡo, *qʰo, *qʰoʔ, *qʰos
*qʰo, *qʰoʔ
*qʰoʔ
*qʰoʔ, *qʰos
*qʰos

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *koːʔ): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *koː, *koːs, *kos, *ɡo) – a kind of grass, in original sense.

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (137)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kəuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/kəuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/kəuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kəwX/
Li
Rong
/kuX/
Wang
Li
/kəuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kə̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gǒu
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gǒu
Middle
Chinese
‹ kuwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[k]ˁ(r)oʔ/
English if really

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 7069
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*koːʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. careless, frivolous
  2. illicit
  3. temporizing; unprincipled
  4. if, but, if only
    • 足以四海足以父母 [Classical Chinese, trad. and simp.]
      From: Mencius, circa 4th century BCE
      Gǒu néng chōng zhī, zúyǐ bǎo sìhǎi; gǒu bù chōng zhī, bù zúyǐ shì fùmǔ. [Pinyin]
      If the four principles can be developed, men will be capable of lving and protecting all within the four seas; if the four principles are not developed, men will not be capable of serving their parents.
  5. a type of grass
  6. any; at all
  7. at least
  8. tentatively; for the time being
  9. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to be circumspect or cautious in one's behaviour ”).
(This character, , is recorded in one or more historical dictionaries as a variant form of .)

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. any, at all, in the least

ReadingsEdit

Derived termsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(gu) (hangeul , revised gu, McCune–Reischauer ku, Yale kwu)

  1. careless, frivolous
  2. illicit
  3. grammatical particle: if, but, if only

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(cẩu)

1. (Tính) Cẩu thả, ẩu, bừa. ◎Như: "nhất bút bất cẩu" 一筆不苟 một nét không cẩu thả.

2. (Phó) Tạm, tạm bợ. ◎Như: "cẩu an đán tịch" 苟安旦夕 tạm yên sớm tối, "cẩu toàn tính mệnh" 苟全性命 tạm cầu cho còn tính mạng, "cẩu hợp" 苟合 lấy vợ lấy chồng không có đủ lễ chính đáng (không tính chuyện lâu dài).