See also:
U+611B, 愛
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-611B

[U+611A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+611C]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 61, +9, 13 strokes, cangjie input 月月心水 (BBPE), four-corner 20247, composition𢖻)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 395, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10947
  • Dae Jaweon: page 732, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2323, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+611B

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
   

Originally , a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qɯːds): phonetic (OC *kɯds) + semantic (heart).

As early as the Qin dynasty, a meaningless component (“foot”) was added to the bottom of the character, as with some other characters depicting people. Compare (from ).

Further corruption turned the original phonetic into ⿱爫冖.

EtymologyEdit

Based on Baxter's (1992) Old Chinese reconstruction /*ʔɨts/, STEDT suggests that it is from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ŋ-(w)aːj (to copulate; to love; to be gentle). Compare Proto-Karen *ʔai (to love), whence Pa'o Karen [script needed] (ʔái, to love), S'gaw Karen အဲၣ် (ʼeh̀, to love); Southern Bai e⁴⁴ (love); Mizo hma-ngaih (to love, to like); Jingpho nwai (to respect, to love), ngwi (to be gentle); Burmese ငွေ့ (ngwe., to be gentle, moderate). The Chinese word is related to a Tibeto-Burman allofam without initial *ŋ-. STEDT states that an Old Chinese reconstruction of /*ʔɨjs/ for is also possible because Old Chinese rhyming does not provide direct evidence of contacts with *-t.

However, Baxter and Sagart (2014) reconstructs /*[q]ˁə[p]-s/, which ends in *-p-s instead. The Old Chinese contrast between *-p-s and *-t-s was lost at a late stage of Old Chinese. The final *-p is not reflected in the Tibeto-Burman comparandum provided by STEDT, making the likelihood that the Chinese form is related to the rest very low (Sagart, 2019). Behr (2016) suggests a derivation from a verbal root meaning "to draw in; to inhale; to suck in", relating it to (OC *qʰ(r)əp, “to inhale”), (OC *qʰˁ[ə]p, “to sip”), (OC *qʰəp-s, “to sigh with regret”), (OC *qˁəp-s, “to pant”), (OC *C.qʰəp-s, “vapour; breath”).

PronunciationEdit


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • ái - literary;
  • ó̤i - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (41)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔʌiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔəiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔɒiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔəjH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔᴀiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɒiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔɑ̆iH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ài
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    oi3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    ài
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔojH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[q]ˁə[p]-s/
    English to love; to grudge (< ‘draw close to oneself’?)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 1
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qɯːds/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

     

    1. to love
      /   ―  ài nǐ.  ―  I love you.
      /   ―  ài tā ma?  ―  Do you love him?
    2. to treasure; to value
    3. to like; to be fond of; to be keen on
      說話 / 说话  ―  ài shuōhuà.  ―  He likes to talk.
      豬肉 / 猪肉  ―  Wǒ bù ài chī zhūròu.  ―  I don't like to eat pork.
    4. to begrudge; to be reluctant
    5. to be prone; to be easy to
      發脾氣 / 发脾气  ―  ài fāpíqì  ―  to be short-tempered
      生鏽 / 生锈  ―  Tiě ài shēngxiù.  ―  Iron rusts easily.
    6. love; affection
      /   ―  àiguó  ―  patriotism
      人間 / 人间  ―  yí'àirénjiān  ―  to leave love behind
    7. love; benevolence
    8. something one loves; someone whom one loves
      /   ―  gē'ài  ―  to sacrifice something one loves to someone else
    9. Honorific for someone else's daughter; variant of (ài).
      /   ―  lìng'ài  ―  your precious daughter
    10. affectionate
      /   ―  àiqíng  ―  love
    11. beloved
      /   ―  ài  ―  beloved wife
    12. (Cantonese, Hakka, Wu) to want (an object)
      咁多 / 咁多 [Cantonese]  ―  ngo5 m4 oi3 gam3 do1. [Jyutping]  ―  I don't want that much.
    13. (Hakka, Min) to want (to do)
    14. (Hakka, Min) to need to; must
      注意 [Taiwanese Hokkien, trad.]
      注意 [Taiwanese Hokkien, simp.]
      Ū chi̍t tiám ài chù-ì--ê. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
      There's one thing you must bear in mind.
    15. (archaic) Alternative form of (ài, “to hide”).
    16. A surname​.

    Usage notesEdit

    • When used for people, usually refers to romantic love. When used like this, older Mandarin speakers often describe the use of this term as overly 肉麻 (ròumá, “cheesy”). For this reason, the word 喜歡喜欢 (xǐhuan, “to like”) might be used instead. Using the word 喜歡喜欢 (xǐhuan) literally means like, but when used in a romantic context (especially boyfriend/girlfriend), it actually means love. However, younger Mandarin speakers seem to have been influenced somewhat by Western culture, and are now using the verb much more often than was socially acceptable in the past.

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (あい) (ai)
    • Korean: (, ae)
    • Vietnamese: ái ()

    Others:

    • ? Proto-Hlai: *ʔəːp (to love)

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    あい
    Grade: 4
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔʌiH).

    Compare modern Mandarin (ài).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (あい) (ai

    1. love
      (あい)(つよ)く。
      Ai wa tsuyoku.
      The love is strong.
      (あい)()つ。
      Ai wa katsu.
      The love wins.
    2. affection
      Synonym: 愛情 (aijō)
    3. tenderness
    4. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
      Synonym: 愛想 (aiso)
    5. (Buddhism) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    6. (Christianity) agape
    SynonymsEdit
    Derived termsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (あい) (Ai

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    AffixEdit

    (あい) (ai

    1. love
    2. (US) Short for 愛州 (Idaho (a state of the United States)).

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    まな
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling

    Originally a compound of (ma, true, genuine) +‎ (na), an Old Japanese version of modern Japanese (no, possessive particle).[3]

    The use of here is an example of ateji (当て字).

    PronunciationEdit

    PrefixEdit

    (まな) (mana-

    1. before a common noun, expresses a sense of admiration or value: good, genuine; compare English the real deal
    2. before a noun describing a person, expresses praise or fondness: dear, beloved
    Derived termsEdit

    NounEdit

    (まな) (mana

    1. (archaic, derived from prefix sense) something dear or loved

    Proper nounEdit

    (まな) (Mana

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 3Edit

    Used as ateji in various names. is a very common element in many, many names.

    Proper nounEdit

    (あづみ) or (ああい) or (あいか) or (あいす) or (あき) or (あこ) or (あみか) or (あおい) or (ありさ) or (あや) or (あゆ) or (ちぎり) or (ちか) or (ちかし) or (えりな) or (はあと) or (ひかり) or (いと) or (いとし) or (いつみ) or (いずみ) or (かな) or (かなえ) or (かなさ) or (きずな) or (こころ) or (このむ) or (まどか) or (まなぶ) or (まなみ) or (めづる) or (めご) or (めぐ) or (めぐみ) or (めぐむ) or (めい) or (なる) or (なるこ) or (のぞみ) or (らぶ) or (るい) or (さら) or (さらん) or (つぐみ) or (つくみ) or (うい) or (よし) or (よしき) or (よしみ) (Azumi or Āi or Aika or Aisu or Aki or Ako or Amika or Aoi or Arisa or Aya or Ayu or Chigiri or Chika or Chikashi or Erina or Hāto or Hikari or Ito or Itoshi or Itsumi or Izumi or Kana or Kanae or Kanasa or Kizuna or Kokoro or Konomu or Madoka or Manabu or Manami or Mezuru or Mego or Megu or Megumi or Megumu or Mei or Naru or Naruko or Nozomi or Rabu or Rui or Sara or Saran or Tsugumi or Tsukumi or Ui or Yoshi or Yoshiki or Yoshimi

    1. a female given name

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔʌiH).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅙᆡᆼ〮 (Yale: qóy)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[1] ᄃᆞᅀᆞᆯ〮 (Yale: dòzól) ᄋᆡ〯 (Yale: ǒy)

    PronunciationEdit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ɛ(ː)] ~ [e̞(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)/(ː)]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 사랑 (sarang ae))

    1. Hanja form? of (love).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit


    Old JapaneseEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Originally a compound of (ma, true, genuine) +‎ (na, apophonic form of possessive particle (no2)).

    NounEdit

    (mana) (kana まな)

    1. something dear or loved
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3462)
        安志比奇乃夜末佐波妣登乃比登佐波爾麻奈登伊布児我安夜爾可奈思佐
        asi-pi1ki2 no2 yamasapabi1to2 no2 pi1to2 sapa ni mana to2 ipu ko1 ga aya ni kanasisa
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)

    Derived termsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Japanese: (mana-)

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: ái[1][2][3][4][5], áy[4]
    : Nôm readings: ái[1][2][3][4][5][6], áy[1][2][3][4][5][6], ải[1]

    1. Hán tự form of ái (love).
    2. Nôm form of áy (troubled; anxious).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit