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See also:
U+611B, 愛
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-611B

[U+611A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+611C]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 61 +9, 13 strokes, cangjie input 月月心水 (BBPE), four-corner 20247, composition ⿱⿳)

Derived glyphsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 395, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10947
  • Dae Jaweon: page 732, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2323, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+611B

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
qɯːds
qɯːds, *qaːds
qɯːds, *qɯlʔ
qɯːds, *qɯlʔ
qɯːds
qɯːds
qaːds

Originally , a phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *qɯːds): phonetic  (OC *kɯds) + semantic  (heart).

As early as the Qin dynasty, a meaningless component (“foot”) was added to the bottom of the character, as with some other characters depicting people. Compare (from ).

Further corruption turned the original phonetic into ⿱爫冖.

PronunciationEdit


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (34)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔʌiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔəiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɒiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔəjH/
Li
Rong
/ʔᴀiH/
Wang
Li
/ɒiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔɑ̆iH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ài
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
ài
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔojH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[q]ˤə[p]-s/
English to love; to grudge (< ‘draw close to oneself’?)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 1
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qɯːds/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. love; affection
    • 祖國 / 祖国  ―  zǔguó ài  ―  patriotism
  2. love; benevolence
  3. to love
    • /   ―  ài nǐ.  ―  I love you.
    • /   ―  ài tā ma?  ―  Do you love him?
  4. affectionate
  5. beloved
  6. to like; to be fond of; to be keen on
  7. to be prone; to be easy to
  8. to treasure; to value
  9. (Hakka, Cantonese, Wu) to want (an object)
  10. (Min, Hakka) to want to do; to need to; must
  11. something one loves; someone whom one loves
    • /   ―  ài  ―  to sacrifice something one loves to someone else
  12. Honorific for someone else's daughter; variant of (āi).
    • /   ―  lìngài  ―  your precious daughter
  13. A surname​.

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of 喜歡 (“to like”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese 喜好愛好
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 喜愛喜好愛好
Mandarin Beijing 喜歡好希
Taiwan 喜歡
Jinan 喜歡
Xi'an 喜歡
Wuhan 喜歡
Chengdu 喜歡歡喜
Yangzhou 歡喜
Hefei 喜歡
Cantonese Guangzhou 中意歡喜
Hong Kong 中意
Taishan 中意
Yangjiang 中意歡喜
Gan Nanchang 歡喜
Hakka Meixian 中意
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 中意
Liudui (S. Sixian) 中意
Hsinchu (Hailu) 中意
Dongshi (Dabu) 中意合意
Zhuolan (Raoping) 中意
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 佮意
Jin Taiyuan 喜歡待見
Min Bei Jian'ou 喜歡
Min Dong Fuzhou 歡喜
Min Nan Xiamen 歡喜意愛佮意舒合
Quanzhou 歡喜意愛佮意
Zhangzhou 歡喜佮意
Taipei 歡喜意愛佮意
Penang 舒合
Chaozhou 歡喜
Wu Shanghai 歡喜
Suzhou 歡喜
Wenzhou 喜歡
Xiang Changsha 喜歡
Shuangfeng 喜歡

Usage notesEdit

  • When used for people, usually refers to romantic love. When used like this, older Mandarin speakers often describe the use of this term as overly 肉麻 (ròumá, “cheesy”). For this reason, the word 喜歡喜欢 (xǐhuān, “to like”) might be used instead. Using the word 喜歡喜欢 (xǐhuān) literally means like, but when used in a romantic context (especially boyfriend/girlfriend), it actually means love. However, younger Mandarin speakers seem to have been influenced somewhat by Western culture, and are now using the verb much more often than was socially acceptable in the past.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
あい
Grade: 4
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (/ʔojH/ invalid IPA characters (H), “to love”). Compare modern Mandarin (ài).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana あい, rōmaji ai)

  1. love
  2. affection
SynonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit
IdiomsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana あい, rōmaji Ai)

  1. A female given name
  2. A surname​.

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
めで
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

The 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of Old Japanese verb 愛でる (mederu, to love; to appreciate or admire).[3][1]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana めで, rōmaji mede)

  1. (archaic) love, appreciation, dearness
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 894)
       (めで) () (さかり) () 天下 (あめのした)  (まをし) () () () ()  (いへの) () ()  (えらひ) () () () () [Man'yōgana]
       (めで) (さか)りに  (あめ) (した)  (もう) (たま)いし  (いえ) ()と  (えら) (たま)いて [Modern spelling]
      mede no sakari ni ame no shita mōshitamai shi ie no ko to erabitamaite
      with the utmost of love, [Amaterasu] spoke under the heavens, and chose with her children...
IdiomsEdit
Related termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
まな
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Originally a compound of (ma, true, genuine) +‎ (na), an Old Japanese version of modern Japanese (no, possessive particle).[3] The use of here is an example of ateji.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana まな, rōmaji mana)

  1. (archaic) (derived from prefix sense) something dear, something loved
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3462)
       () () () () () () ()  () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
       (まな)という ()が あやに (かな)しさ [Modern spelling]
      mana to iu ko ga aya ni kanashisa
      the child called a dear, such indescribable tenderness

PrefixEdit

(hiragana まな, rōmaji mana-)

  1. before a common noun, expresses a sense of admiration or value: good, genuine; compare English the real deal
  2. before a noun describing a person, expresses praise or fondness: dear, beloved
Derived termsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana まな, rōmaji Mana)

  1. A female given name

Etymology 4Edit

Used as ateji in various names. is a very common element in many, many names.

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana あづみ, rōmaji Azumi, alternative reading ああい, rōmaji Āi, alternative reading あいか, rōmaji Aika, alternative reading あいす, rōmaji Aisu, alternative reading あき, rōmaji Aki, alternative reading あこ, rōmaji Ako, alternative reading あみか, rōmaji Amika, alternative reading あおい, rōmaji Aoi, alternative reading ありさ, rōmaji Arisa, alternative reading あや, rōmaji Aya, alternative reading あゆ, rōmaji Ayu, alternative reading ちぎり, rōmaji Chigiri, alternative reading ちか, rōmaji Chika, alternative reading ちかし, rōmaji Chikashi, alternative reading えりな, rōmaji Erina, alternative reading はあと, rōmaji Hāto, alternative reading ひかり, rōmaji Hikari, alternative reading いと, rōmaji Ito, alternative reading いとし, rōmaji Itoshi, alternative reading いつみ, rōmaji Itsumi, alternative reading いずみ, rōmaji Izumi, alternative reading かな, rōmaji Kana, alternative reading かなえ, rōmaji Kanae, alternative reading かなさ, rōmaji Kanasa, alternative reading きずな, rōmaji Kizuna, alternative reading こころ, rōmaji Kokoro, alternative reading このむ, rōmaji Konomu, alternative reading まどか, rōmaji Madoka, alternative reading まなぶ, rōmaji Manabu, alternative reading まなみ, rōmaji Manami, alternative reading めづる, rōmaji Mezuru, alternative reading めご, rōmaji Mego, alternative reading めぐ, rōmaji Megu, alternative reading めぐみ, rōmaji Megumi, alternative reading めぐむ, rōmaji Megumu, alternative reading めい, rōmaji Mei, alternative reading なる, rōmaji Naru, alternative reading なるこ, rōmaji Naruko, alternative reading のぞみ, rōmaji Nozomi, alternative reading らぶ, rōmaji Rabu, alternative reading るい, rōmaji Rui, alternative reading さら, rōmaji Sara, alternative reading さらん, rōmaji Saran, alternative reading つぐみ, rōmaji Tsugumi, alternative reading つくみ, rōmaji Tsukumi, alternative reading うい, rōmaji Ui, alternative reading よし, rōmaji Yoshi, alternative reading よしき, rōmaji Yoshiki, alternative reading よしみ, rōmaji Yoshimi)

  1. A female given name

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  3. 3.0 3.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(ae)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: ae, McCune-Reischauer: ae, Yale: ay)
    • Name (hangeul): 사랑 (revised: sarang, McCune-Reischauer: sarang, Yale: salang)
  1. love

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(ái, áy)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.