U+7D20, 素
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7D20

[U+7D1F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7D21]

Translingual

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Han character

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(Kangxi radical 120, +4, 10 strokes, cangjie input 手一女戈火 (QMVIF), four-corner 50903, composition )

See also

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 918, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 27300
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1348, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3368, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+7D20

Chinese

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simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Pictogram (象形) – hands braiding thread .

In modern form, top component looks like without the diagonal stroke – compare , .

Etymology

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Austroasiatic in origin; compare Khmer (sɑɑ, white; to show something clearly) (Schuessler, 2007). Cognate with (OC *sraːɡ, *sreːɡ, “to search”).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • su3 - literary;
  • sou3 - vernacular (limited, e.g., 味素).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /su⁵¹/
Harbin /su⁵³/
Tianjin /su⁵³/
Jinan /su²¹/
Qingdao /su⁴²/
Zhengzhou /su³¹²/
Xi'an /su⁴⁴/
Xining /ɕy²¹³/
Yinchuan /su¹³/
Lanzhou /su¹³/
Ürümqi /su²¹³/
Wuhan /səu³⁵/
Chengdu /su¹³/
Guiyang /su²¹³/
Kunming /su²¹²/
Nanjing /su⁴⁴/
Hefei /su⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /su⁴⁵/
Pingyao /səu³⁵/
Hohhot /su⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /su³⁵/
Suzhou /səu⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /su⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /sɤu⁴²/
Hui Shexian /su³²⁴/
Tunxi /səu⁴²/
Xiang Changsha /səu⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /səɯ⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /su⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /sz̩⁵³/
Taoyuan /su⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sou³³/
Nanning /ɬu³³/
Hong Kong /sou³³/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /sɔ²¹/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /sou²¹²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /su³³/
Shantou (Teochew) /su²¹³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /so³⁵/
/to³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter suH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/suoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/suoH/
Shao
Rongfen
/soH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sɔH/
Li
Rong
/soH/
Wang
Li
/suH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/suoH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sou3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ suH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s]ˁak-s/
English white silk

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12099
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*saːs/

Definitions

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  1. white silk
  2. silk or paper used for writing
  3. white
      ―  miàn  ―  unadorned face; face without makeup
      ―    ―  white mourning clothes
  4. plain
      ―  jìng  ―  plain and neat
  5. vegetarian (food)
      ―  cài  ―  vegetable dish; vegetarian dish
      ―  chī  ―  to live on a vegetarian diet; to be a vegetarian
      ―  shí  ―  vegetarian foods; to maintain a vegetarian diet
  6. original; unprocessed
      ―  cái  ―  source material
      ―  zhì  ―  nature
  7. usually; always; all along
      ―  píng  ―  normally; usually
    往來往来  ―  bù wǎnglái  ―  have never had contact with each other
    武漢九省通衢」。 [MSC, trad.]
    武汉九省通衢」。 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǔhàn chēng “jiǔshěng tōngqú”. [Pinyin]
    Wuhan has always been called "the thoroughfare of the nine provinces".
  8. element
      ―  yuán  ―  element
    維生维生  ―  wéishēng  ―  vitamin
      ―    ―  pigment
  9. (mathematics) prime
      ―  shù  ―  prime number
      ―    ―  coprime; relatively prime

Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. basic
  2. plain

Readings

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Compounds

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Derived terms

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
on’yomi

Derived from Middle Chinese (MC suH).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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() (su (su)?

  1. unadorned state
  2. (cooking) essence
    (はん)()
    gohan no su
    rice flavoring / seasoning

Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Adjective

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() (so-na (adnominal () (so na), adverbial () (so ni))

  1. plain
  2. (mathematics) prime (having no factors but 1 and itself)
    (たが)いに()
    tagai ni so
    mutually prime

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC suH). Recorded as Middle Korean (swo) (Yale: swo) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Pronunciation

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  • (element; basis):
  • (plain; white):
    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [sʰo̞(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (huil so))
(eumhun 본디 (bondi so))

  1. Hanja form? of (plain; white).
  2. Hanja form? of (element; basis).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese

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Chữ Hán

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: Nôm readings: tố[1], [2]

  1. (dated) chữ Hán form of tố (clean, white).
  2. chữ Hán form of tố (element, basis).

Compounds

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References

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