U+6545, 故
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6545

[U+6544]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6546]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 66, +5, 9 strokes, cangjie input 十口人大 (JROK), four-corner 48640, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 469, character 25
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13161
  • Dae Jaweon: page 820, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1453, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+6545

Chinese

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simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kaːs) : phonetic (OC *kaːʔ) + semantic .

Etymology 1

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Derivative of (OC *kaːʔ, “old”). The sense “cause, reason” may be related to (“thing or person of former times”), or the same word as (OC *kaːs, “solid, secure, sure”) (Schuessler 2007, apud Pulleyblank 1989).

Pronunciation

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Note: gu7 - “old, original”.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (23)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter kuH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuoH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuoH/
Shao
Rongfen
/koH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kɔH/
Li
Rong
/koH/
Wang
Li
/kuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuoH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gu3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ kuH › ‹ kuH ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁa(ʔ)-s/ /*kˁaʔ-s/
English fact; reason old (not new)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4228
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kaːs/

Definitions

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  1. old; of the past
  2. cause; reason
      ―  yuán  ―  reason
  3. accident; misfortune; unexpected event
  4. past things; antiquity
  5. old friend; good friend; close friend
  6. to die; to pass away
      ―    ―  deceased [lit. has passed away]
  7. deceased; dead
  8. formerly; originally
  9. intentionally; deliberately
  10. still; as before
  11. therefore; so
    我思我在  ―  wǒ sī wǒ zài  ―  I think, therefore I am
    北京  ―  míng “běijīng”  ―  hence the name "Northern Capital"
Synonyms
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  • (to die):
  • (therefore; so):
Compounds
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Descendants
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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (ko)
  • Korean: 고(故) (go)
  • Vietnamese: cố ()

Others:

Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (Cantonese) Alternative form of (gu2, story)

Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. happenstance
  2. old, past
  3. therefore
  4. late (deceased)

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
kan’on

Pronunciation

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Prefix

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() (ko-

  1. the deceased, late

Affix

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() (ko

  1. old; past; former

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
ゆえ
Grade: 5
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
ゆえ
[noun] reason, cause
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
ことさら
Grade: 5
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
殊更ことさら
[adverb] intentionally; deliberately; on purpose
[adverb] particularly; especially; specially
[adjective] intentional; deliberate
[adjective] particular
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

References

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Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC kuH). Recorded as Middle Korean (kwo) (Yale: kwo) in Sinjeung Yuhap (新增類合 / 신증유합), 1576.

Pronunciation

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  • (in 고향 (故鄕, gohyang)):
  • (old; cause; accident; etc.):
    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ko̞(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (yet go))

  1. Hanja form? of (old; ancient).
  2. Hanja form? of (cause; reason).
  3. Hanja form? of (accident; unexpected event).
  4. Hanja form? of (late (deceased)).
    노태우, 내일 국가장
    go No-tae'u, naeil gukgajang
    The state funeral for the late Roh Tae-woo will be tomorrow

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: cố, cớ

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.