Open main menu
Development of Proto-Italic vowels in Latin
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Italic Latin
Initial Medial Final
+r < PI *z +w [1] +ɫC[2] +N +other +r [1] +C +cluster +C +cluster Word final
ŋ[3] other w other ŋ[3] other s N other
short *(a), *h₂e *a a e u i e i e i e e
*e, *h₁e *e e o i e, i e
*i *i i i
*o, h₃e *o o o, a o,u u o u u
*u *u u e
long *(ā), *eh₂ ā a a, ā
*ē, *eh₁ ē e ē?
*ī, *iH ī i ī?
*ō, *eh₃, *oH ō o ō
*ū, *uH ū u ū?
diphthongs *(ay), *h₂ey
*(āy), *eh₂y
*ai
*āi
ae ī ī
ae
*(aw), *h₂ew
*(āw), *eh₂u
*au
(*āu?)
au ū
*(h₁)ey
*ēy, eh₁i
*ei
(*ēi?)
ī
*oy, *h₃ey
*ōy, *eh₃i
*oi
*ōi
ū, oe, ī[4] ū ī ī
ō
*(h₁)ew, *h₃ew, *ow
*ēw, *eh₁/₃u, *oHu, *ōw
*ou
(*ōu?)
ū

NotesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 The “l pinguis” is a velarized ⟨l⟩, [ɫ], which comes from any ⟨l⟩ not followed by ⟨ī̆⟩ or another ⟨l⟩. An ⟨l⟩ followed by any of these sounds is an “l exilis”, [l].
  2. ^ ⟨l⟩ + C (except another l)
  3. 3.0 3.1 /ŋ/ appears in -ng- (/ŋɡ/), -ngu- (/ŋɡʷ/), -nc- (/ŋk/), -nqu- (/ŋkʷ/), and -gn- (/ŋn/).
  4. ^ After w- or between l- and a labial

ExamplesEdit

Note that "X" means any consonant, while "N" means any nasal consonant.

*aEdit

*eEdit

*iEdit

*oEdit

*uEdit

Edit

Edit

Edit

  • Initial
  • Medial
  • Final
    • +s:
    • +N:
    • +X:
    • +cluster:
    • +nothing:

Edit

  • Initial
  • Medial
    • +r:
    • +ɫ:
    • +w:
    • +X:
    • +ŋ:
    • +cluster:
  • Final

Edit

  • Initial
    • +r < PI *z:
    • +w:
    • +ɫ:
    • +l+consonant:
    • +ŋ:
    • +N:
    • +X:
  • Medial
    • +r:
    • +ɫ:
    • +w:
    • +X:
    • +ŋ:
    • +cluster:
  • Final

*aiEdit

*āiEdit

  • Initial
    • +r < PI *z:
    • +w:
    • +ɫ:
    • +l+consonant:
    • +ŋ:
    • +N:
    • +X:
  • Medial
    • +r:
    • +ɫ:
    • +w:
    • +X:
    • +ŋ:
    • +cluster:
  • Final
    • +s:
    • +N:
    • +X:
    • +cluster:
    • +nothing:

*au/*āuEdit

*ei/*ēiEdit

*oiEdit

  • Initial
  • Medial
    • +r:
    • +ɫ:
    • +w:
    • +X:
    • +ŋ:
    • +cluster:
  • Final
    • +s:
    • +N:
    • +X:
    • +cluster:
    • +nothing:

*ōiEdit

  • Initial
    • +r < PI *z:
    • +w:
    • +ɫ:
    • +l+consonant:
    • +ŋ:
    • +N:
    • +X:
  • Medial
  • Final
    • +s:
    • +N:
    • +X:
    • +cluster:
    • +nothing:

*ou/*ōuEdit

  • Initial
    • +r < PI *z:
    • +w:
    • +ɫ:
    • +l+consonant:
    • +ŋ:
    • +N:
    • +X: *rougā > rūga
  • Medial
    • +r:
    • +ɫ:
    • +w:
    • +X:
    • +ŋ:
    • +cluster:
  • Final
    • +s:
    • +N:
    • +X:
    • +cluster:
    • +nothing:

ReferencesEdit

  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  • Fortson, Benjamin W. (2004), “Italic”, in Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, first edition, Oxford: Blackwell, § 13.32ff, page 254