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Etymology edit

Clipping of dictionnaire (dictionary) + -o (familiarizing suffix) [second half of 20th century].

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

dico m (plural dicos)

  1. (informal) dictionary
    Synonym: dictionnaire
    J’adore ce dico!I love this dictionary!

Further reading edit

Italian edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ˈdi.ko/
  • Rhymes: -iko
  • Hyphenation: dì‧co

Verb edit


  1. first-person singular present indicative of dire

Latin edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Italic *deikō, from Proto-Indo-European *déyḱti (to show, point out) (reformed as a thematic verb). The perfect forms are derived from Proto-Indo-European *dḗyḱst.

Cognates include Oscan 𐌃𐌄𐌝𐌊𐌖𐌌 (deíkum, to show, point out), Sanskrit दिशति (diśáti), Ancient Greek δείκνυμι (deíknumi) and Old English tǣċan (English teach).

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

dīcō (present infinitive dīcere, perfect active dīxī, supine dictum); third conjugation, irregular short imperative

  1. to say, talk, speak, utter, mention,
    Synonyms: aiō, for, effor, inquam, ōrō, alloquor, loquor
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 4.204-205:
      dīcitur ante ārās media inter nūmina dīvum
      multa Iovem manibus supplex ōrāsse supīnīs
      It is said [that King Iarbas] – before the altars, amid divine presences all around – often prostrated himself, with hands raised in supplication, to implore Jupiter.
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Genesis.1.3:
      dixitque Deus fiat lux et facta est lux
      And God said: Be light made. And light was made.
    Salūtem dīcit.He says hi. (literally, “He says health.”)
  2. to declare, state
    1. to affirm, assert (positively)
      Synonyms: aiō, fīgō, contendō
  3. to tell
  4. to appoint, name, nominate (to an office)
  5. to call, name
    • 8 CE, Ovid, Metamorphoses 1.5–7:
      Ante mare et terrās et quod tegit omnia caelum
      ūnus erat tōtō nātūrae vultus in orbe,
      quem dīxēre chaos: []
      Before the sea and the lands and the sky that covers over all things,
      there was one face of nature in the whole world,
      which they called chaos: []
  6. (law, followed by ad) to plead (before)
  7. to mean, speak in reference to, refer to
Conjugation edit
   Conjugation of dīcō (third conjugation, irregular short imperative)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present dīcō dīcis dīcit dīcimus dīcitis dīcunt
imperfect dīcēbam dīcēbās dīcēbat dīcēbāmus dīcēbātis dīcēbant
future dīcam,
dīcēs dīcet,
dīcēmus dīcētis dīcent
perfect dīxī dīxistī dīxit dīximus dīxistis dīxērunt,
pluperfect dīxeram dīxerās dīxerat dīxerāmus dīxerātis dīxerant
future perfect dīxerō dīxeris dīxerit dīxerimus dīxeritis dīxerint
sigmatic future1 dīxō dīxis dīxit dīximus dīxitis dīxint
passive present dīcor dīceris,
dīcitur dīcimur dīciminī dīcuntur
imperfect dīcēbar dīcēbāris,
dīcēbātur dīcēbāmur dīcēbāminī dīcēbantur
future dīcar dīcēris,
dīcētur dīcēmur dīcēminī dīcentur
perfect dictus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect dictus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect dictus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present dīcam dīcās dīcat dīcāmus dīcātis dīcant
imperfect dīcerem dīcerēs dīceret dīcerēmus dīcerētis dīcerent
perfect dīxerim dīxerīs dīxerit dīxerīmus dīxerītis dīxerint
pluperfect dīxissem dīxissēs dīxisset dīxissēmus dīxissētis dīxissent
sigmatic aorist1 dīxim dīxīs dīxīt dīxīmus dīxītis dīxint
passive present dīcar dīcāris,
dīcātur dīcāmur dīcāminī dīcantur
imperfect dīcerer dīcerēris,
dīcerētur dīcerēmur dīcerēminī dīcerentur
perfect dictus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect dictus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present dīc,
future dīcitō dīcitō dīcitōte dīcuntō
passive present dīcere dīciminī
future dīcitor dīcitor dīcuntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives dīcere dīxisse dictūrum esse dīcī,
dictum esse dictum īrī
participles dīcēns dictūrus dictus dīcendus,
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
dīcendī dīcendō dīcendum dīcendō dictum dictū

1At least one use of the archaic "sigmatic future" and "sigmatic aorist" tenses is attested, which are used by Old Latin writers; most notably Plautus and Terence. The sigmatic future is generally ascribed a future or future perfect meaning, while the sigmatic aorist expresses a possible desire ("might want to").
3The present passive infinitive in -ier is a rare poetic form which is attested.

Derived terms edit
Descendants edit

Etymology 2 edit

Possibly from a lost *dex (seen in index > indicō, iūdex > iūdicō, vindex > vindicō), from Proto-Indo-European *deyḱ-s, root nomen agentis from *deyḱ- (to show), whence dīcō.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

dicō (present infinitive dicāre, perfect active dicāvī, supine dicātum); first conjugation

  1. to dedicate, devote
    Synonyms: dēdicō, sacrō, addīcō, sanciō, voveō
    • c. 52 BCE, Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico 6.12:
      Ei, qui propter veteres inimicitias nullo modo cum Aeduis coniungi poterant, se Remis in clientelam dicabant.
      Those, who because of old animosities could not join with the Aedui, dedicated themselves as clients to the Remi.
  2. to consecrate, deify
    Synonyms: cōnsecrō, sanciō
    Antonym: exaugurō
  3. to appropriate to, devote to, assign to, set apart for
Conjugation edit
   Conjugation of dicō (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present dicō dicās dicat dicāmus dicātis dicant
imperfect dicābam dicābās dicābat dicābāmus dicābātis dicābant
future dicābō dicābis dicābit dicābimus dicābitis dicābunt
perfect dicāvī dicāvistī dicāvit dicāvimus dicāvistis dicāvērunt,
pluperfect dicāveram dicāverās dicāverat dicāverāmus dicāverātis dicāverant
future perfect dicāverō dicāveris dicāverit dicāverimus dicāveritis dicāverint
passive present dicor dicāris,
dicātur dicāmur dicāminī dicantur
imperfect dicābar dicābāris,
dicābātur dicābāmur dicābāminī dicābantur
future dicābor dicāberis,
dicābitur dicābimur dicābiminī dicābuntur
perfect dicātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect dicātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect dicātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present dicem dicēs dicet dicēmus dicētis dicent
imperfect dicārem dicārēs dicāret dicārēmus dicārētis dicārent
perfect dicāverim dicāverīs dicāverit dicāverīmus dicāverītis dicāverint
pluperfect dicāvissem dicāvissēs dicāvisset dicāvissēmus dicāvissētis dicāvissent
passive present dicer dicēris,
dicētur dicēmur dicēminī dicentur
imperfect dicārer dicārēris,
dicārētur dicārēmur dicārēminī dicārentur
perfect dicātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect dicātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present dicā dicāte
future dicātō dicātō dicātōte dicantō
passive present dicāre dicāminī
future dicātor dicātor dicantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives dicāre dicāvisse dicātūrum esse dicārī dicātum esse dicātum īrī
participles dicāns dicātūrus dicātus dicandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
dicandī dicandō dicandum dicandō dicātum dicātū
Derived terms edit
Descendants edit

References edit

  • dico”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • dico”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • dico in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • dico in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to appoint a date for an interview: diem dicere colloquio
    • to whisper something in a person's ears: in aurem alicui dicere (insusurrare) aliquid
    • I heard him say..: ex eo audivi, cum diceret
    • every one says: vulgo dicitur, pervulgatum est
    • give me your opinion: dic quid sentias
    • to speak the truth, admit the truth: verum dicere, profiteri
    • to be truthful in all one's statements: omnia ad veritatem dicere
    • to have a superficial knowledge, a smattering of literature, of the sciences: primis (ut dicitur) or primoribus labris gustare or attingere litteras
    • to contradict some one: dicere contra aliquem or aliquid (not contradicere alicui)
    • they say; it is commonly said: tradunt, dicunt, ferunt
    • to speak extempore: subito, ex tempore (opp. ex praeparato) dicere
    • to speak very fluently: copiose dicere
    • to speak well, elegantly: ornate dicere
    • to speak frankly, independently: libere dicere (Verr. 2. 72. 176)
    • to speak openly, straightforwardly: plane, aperte dicere
    • to speak in clear, expressive language: perspicue, diserte dicere
    • to speak without circumlocution: missis ambagibus dicere
    • to be a persuasive speaker: accommodate ad persuadendum dicere
    • (1) to speak vehemently, passionately; (2) to speak pompously, boastfully: magnifice loqui, dicere
    • to speak at great length on a subject, discuss very fully: fusius, uberius, copiosius disputare, dicere de aliqua re
    • to read a speech: de scripto orationem habere, dicere (opp. sine scripto, ex memoria)
    • I said it in jest: haec iocatus sum, per iocum dixi
    • to be witty: facete dicere
    • to indulge in apt witticisms: facete et commode dicere
    • to make jokes on a person: dicta dicere in aliquem
    • to say in earnest..: serio dicere (Plaut. Bacch. 1. 1. 42)
    • to say only a few words: pauca dicere (pauca verba dicere only of the orator)
    • the word amicitia comes from amare: nomen amicitiae (or simply amicitia) dicitur ab amando
    • to be used in speaking of a thing: in aliqua re dici
    • anger is defined as a passionate desire for revenge: iracundiam sic (ita) definiunt, ut ulciscendi libidinem esse dicant or ut u. libido sit or iracundiam sic definiunt, ulc. libidinem
    • the word aemulatio is employed with two meanings, in a good and a bad sense: aemulatio dupliciter dicitur, ut et in laude et in vitio hoc nomen sit
    • as the proverb says: ut or quod or quomodo aiunt, ut or quemadmodum dicitur
    • Cicero says in his 'Laelius.: Cicero dicit in Laelio (suo) or in eo (not suo) libro, qui inscribitur Laelius
    • our (not noster) author tells us at this point: scriptor hoc loco dicit
    • Cicero says this somewhere: Cicero loco quodam haec dicit
    • to lose one's composure; to be disconcerted: de gradu deici, ut dicitur
    • to love some one very dearly, with all one's heart: aliquem toto pectore, ut dicitur, amare (Leg. 18. 49)
    • to tell lies: mendacium dicere
    • to tell lies: falsa (pro veris) dicere
    • to greet a person: salutem alicui dicere, impertire, nuntiare
    • Cicero sends cordial greetings to Atticus: Cicero Attico S.D.P. (salutem dicit plurimam)
    • to separate, be divorced (used of man or woman): repudium dicere or scribere alicui
    • to support a bill (before the people): pro lege dicere
    • to name a person dictator: dictatorem dicere (creare)
    • a dictator appoints a magister equitum: dictator dicit (legit) magistrum equitum
    • to give an opinion (also used of a judge, cf. sect. VI. 4): sententiam dicere
    • to administer justice (said of the praetor): ius dicere
    • to summon some one to appear on a given day; to accuse a person: diem dicere alicui
    • to give evidence on some one's behalf: testimonium dicere pro aliquo
    • to state as evidence: pro testimonio dicere
    • to address the court (of the advocate): causam dicere, orare (Brut. 12. 47)
    • to defend oneself before the judge (of the accused): causam dicere
    • to defend a person: causam dicere pro aliquo
    • to give sentence (of the judge, cf. sect. VI. 4, note Not...): sententiam ferre, dicere (Off. 3. 16. 66)
    • to take the military oath: sacramentum (o) dicere (vid. sect. XI. 2, note sacramentum...)
    • to dictate the terms of peace to some one: pacis condiciones dare, dicere alicui (Liv. 29. 12)
    • to sum up..: ut eorum, quae dixi, summam faciam
    • I will only say this much..: tantum or unum illud or hoc dico
    • this can be said of..., applies to..: hoc dici potest de aliqua re
    • I said en passant, by the way: dixi quasi praeteriens or in transitu
    • I have said it a thousand times: sexcenties, millies dixi
    • (ambiguous) as I said above: ut supra (opp. infra) diximus, dictum est
    • I cannot find words for..: dici vix (non) potest or vix potest dici (vix like non always before potest)
    • I avoid mentioning...; I prefer not to touch upon..: supersedeo oratione (not dicere)
    • I avoid mentioning...; I prefer not to touch upon..: omitto dicere
    • (ambiguous) this I have to say: haec habeo dicere or habeo quae dicam
    • he spoke (very much) as follows: haec (fere) dixit
    • the tenor of his speech was this..: hanc in sententiam dixit
    • which I can say without offence, arrogance: quod non arroganter dixerim
    • allow me to say: pace tua dixerim or dicere liceat
    • allow me to say: bona (cum) venia tua dixerim
    • (ambiguous) so much for this subject...; enough has been said on..: ac (sed) de ... satis dixi, dictum est
    • (ambiguous) a short, pointed witticism: breviter et commode dictum
    • (ambiguous) a witticism, bon mot: facete dictum
    • (ambiguous) a far-fetched joke: arcessitum dictum (De Or. 2. 63. 256)
    • (ambiguous) so to speak (used to modify a figurative expression): ut ita dicam
    • (ambiguous) not to mention..: ut non (nihil) dicam de...
    • (ambiguous) to say nothing further on..: ut plura non dicam
    • (ambiguous) not to say... (used in avoiding a stronger expression): ne dicam
    • (ambiguous) to say the least..: ne (quid) gravius dicam
    • (ambiguous) to put it briefly: ut breviter dicam
    • (ambiguous) to use the mildest expression: ut levissime dicam (opp. ut gravissimo verbo utar)
    • (ambiguous) to express myself more plainly: ut planius dicam
    • (ambiguous) to put it more exactly: ut verius dicam
    • (ambiguous) to say once for all: ut semel or in perpetuum dicam
    • (ambiguous) I will give you my true opinion: dicam quod sentio
    • (ambiguous) as I said above: ut supra (opp. infra) diximus, dictum est
    • (ambiguous) this I have to say: haec habeo dicere or habeo quae dicam
    • (ambiguous) so much for this subject...; enough has been said on..: ac (sed) de ... satis dixi, dictum est
    • (ambiguous) there is something in what you say; you are more or less right: aliquid (τι) dicis (opp. nihil dicis)
    • (ambiguous) what do you mean: quorsum haec (dicis)?
    • (ambiguous) it is incredible: monstra dicis, narras
  • Sihler, Andrew L. (1995) New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin, Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  • Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), Bern, München: Francke Verlag