Alternative forms Edit
- shugar (obsolete)
From Middle English sugre, sucre, from Middle French sucre, from Old French çucre (circa 13th century), from Old Italian zucchero (or another vernacular of Italy), from Arabic سُكَّر (sukkar), from Persian شکر (šakar), from Middle Persian [script needed] (škl), 𐫢𐫞𐫡 (šqr /šakar/), from Sanskrit शर्करा (śárkarā, “ground or candied sugar", originally "grit, gravel”). Akin to Ancient Greek κρόκη (krókē, “pebble”). Doublet of jaggery and sucro-.
- (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈʃʊɡə(ɹ)/
- (General American) enPR: sho͝ogʹər, IPA(key): /ˈʃʊɡɚ/
Audio (UK) (file) Audio (US) (file)
- Rhymes: -ʊɡə(ɹ)
- (uncountable) Sucrose in the form of small crystals, obtained from sugar cane or sugar beet and used to sweeten food and drink.
- 1792, Francis Collingwood, The universal cook: and city and country housekeeper:
- To a pound of gooseberries take a pound and a half of double-refined sugar. Clarify the sugar with water, a pint to a pound of sugar, and when the syrup is cold, put the gooseberries single in your preserving pan, put the syrup to them, and set them on a gentle fire.
- 1895 April 1, “The Present Crisis”, in The Sugar Cane, volume 27, number 309, page 171:
- There appears to be no prospect of success in attempting to combat the crisis by international arrangement, and any improvement in sugar prices can only be looked for from a diminution of the production, either as a consequence of deficient crops, or of a reduction in manufacture.
- 2013, Robert Paarlberg, Food Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know?:
- Even in extreme cases such as chemical pollution in the Florida Everglades from heavily subsidized sugar farming, strong regulations are routinely blocked by industry.
- (countable) A specific variety of sugar.
- 1915 September 18, “Drying Sugars Essential to Their Preservation”, in The Louisiana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer, volume 55:
- The experience of sugar planters in Louisiana this year in holding their sugars in warehouse for future sales at better prices has revealed again, as it has done heretofore, the fact that the presence of moisture in the sugars is inimical to their maintaining their standard of quality
- (countable, chemistry) Any of various small carbohydrates that are used by organisms to store energy.
- Hypernyms: see Thesaurus:carbohydrate
- 1942, James E. Kraus, Effects of partial defoliation at transplanting time on subsequent:
- At the end of the second week there were less reducing sugars in the unpruned plants than in the previous week, but those in the pruned plants were the same.
- 1994, Peter J. Van Soest, Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant:
- Generally speaking, plants have a much greater variety of sugars and linkages than animal tissues have.
- 1998, A.J. Harborne, Phytochemical Methods A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis:
- The major free sugars in plants are the monosaccharides, glucose and fructose (and the disaccharide sucros), together with traces of xylose, rhamnose and galactose.
- 2007, Ajit Varma, Plant Surface Microbiology:
- Although H. bertonii relies on scale insects to prepare its parasitism site on plants, it directly absorbs and utilizes plant sugars.
- (countable) A small serving of this substance (typically about one teaspoon), used to sweeten a drink.
- He usually has his coffee white with one sugar.
- 1916, Cosmo Hamilton, “Miss Fanny Goes to Great Lengths”, in The World To-day: A Monthly Record of Human Progress, volume 30:
- “A slice of lemon and two sugars, please.” “You needn't have said that. I know how you like your tea. I know how you like everything.”
- 1993, 1:13:03 from the start, in Groundhog Day, spoken by Phil (Bill Murray):
- Skim milk, two sugar.
- 2016, Ameera Patel, Outside the Lines:
- Then there are the coffees, one with two sweeteners and no milk, one with one sweetener and milk, one with three sugars and a dash of milk, one with one sugar and lots of milk and finally her Uncle Samad who says that anything is fine.
- (countable) A term of endearment.
- Synonyms: see Thesaurus:sweetheart
- I'll be with you in a moment, sugar.
- (uncountable, slang) Affection shown by kisses or kissing.
- Synonyms: see Thesaurus:buss
- 1992, Army of Darkness, spoken by Ash Williams (Bruce Campbell):
- Gimme some sugar, baby.
- (chiefly southern US, slang, uncountable) Effeminacy in a male, often implying homosexuality.
- I think John has a little bit of sugar in him.
- 1998, Lene Østermark-Johansen, Sweetness and Strength, →ISBN:
- There are depths and heights of beauty in him beyond tears - but there is no sugar, not even any honey.
- 1999, Peggy J. Rudd, My Husband Wears My Clothes, →ISBN:
- The crossdresser is showing the desire to be "sugar and spice" through feminine clothing and through the expression of feminine feelings.
- 2008, Reuben A. Buford May, Living Through the Hoop, →ISBN:
- Because of Patrick's mannerisms, the players teased him by referring to him as “Sweetness” or saying that he had “sugar” in his pants.
- (uncountable, informal) Diabetes.
- 2002, Mrs Sheila Hillier, David Kelleher, Researching Cultural Differences in Health, →ISBN, page 94:
- One respondent said that he had been told by his doctor that he had 'sugar' and diabetes, thus affirming for him the distinctiveness of the two illnesses. The distinction made sense to some of them as the relationship between diabetes and 'sugar' seemed to relate to their experiences of the West Indies, where 'sugar' was believed to be rare and diabetes common.
- 2003, Tom Lee, Above All We Ask Or Think, →ISBN, page 53:
- The veterinarian said his real problem was that he had sugar, and not to concentrate on the problem with his eyes.
- 2004, Diane M. Parker, Ruth E. Mark, Reflections on a Life with Diabetes: A Memoir in Many Voices, →ISBN, page 57:
- Don't you love it when you start a new Disease - the pamphlets, the prescriptions, the attention? And the past turning ironic, cloudy, as if you'd added a chemical - my house painter saying he has sugar, reminding me of my mother demanding the sweet drool from every baby.
- 2008, De'lois Washington McMillan, Suppose Jesus Had Thrown in the Towel and Given Up on Us, →ISBN:
- The doctor told me I had sugar and would have to take pills.
- 2012, Bert Fraser-Reid, From Sugar to Splenda, →ISBN:
- The memorable event was watching my father test urine, his or that of sundry other folks who had “sugar”, as diabetes was known in the rural hills of Jamaica where I grew up.
- (dated) Anything resembling sugar in taste or appearance, especially in chemistry.
- Sugar of lead (lead acetate) is a poisonous white crystalline substance with a sweet taste.
- 1717, M. de Fontenelle, “Upon the Iron of Plants”, in The Lives of the French, Italian and German Philosophers:
- Mons. Lemery is of Opinion that Sweetness proceeds from a close Mixture of an Acid with a Sulphur, or with an Oyl that temperates and corrects it; he supports his Conjecture by the instance of Sugar of Saturn, so called from its Sweetness, which is Lead, a Metal insipid in its self, but very Sulphureous, dissolved by an Acid.
- 1788, Torbern Olof Bergman, “Of Magnesia”, in E. Cullen, transl., Physical and chemical essays, volume 1, translation of original in Swedish, page 448:
- The fluor acid, the acid of sugar, of phosphorus, and vitriol, separate magnelia from the acid of arsenic; but the acid of tartar, united with arsenicated magnesia, is generally found to compose a triple salt.
- 1904, “Process of Making Milk Sugar”, in The American Sugar Industry and Beer Sugar Gazette, volume 6, page 392:
- Sugar of milk is now produced by partly chemical means from milk-whey, the product being about two and a half pounds per hundred pounds of whey.
- Compliment or flattery used to disguise or render acceptable something obnoxious; honeyed or soothing words.
- (US, slang, uncountable) Heroin.
- Synonyms: see Thesaurus:heroin
- (US, slang, uncountable, dated) Money.
- (programming) Syntactic sugar.
- 2005, Bruce Ian Mills, Theoretical Introduction to Programming, page 180:
- However, this bookkeeping is much less local syntax and sugar.
- neohesperidin dihydrochalcone
- steviol glycoside
- agave syrup
- barley malt syrup
- birch syrup
- blanco directo
- brown rice syrup
- corn syrup
- fruit syrup
- golden syrup
- goor, gur
- high fructose corn syrup
- holing cane
- maple syrup
- panocha, panoche
- Steen's cane syrup
- sweet sorghum
Derived terms Edit
- 10x sugar
- acid of sugar
- acorn sugar
- ambered sugar
- amino sugar, aminosugar
- anhydrous sugar
- animal sugar
- as sweet as sugar, sweet as sugar
- baker's sugar
- Barbados sugar
- barley sugar, barley-sugar
- bar sugar
- bastard sugar
- beechwood sugar
- beetroot sugar
- beet sugar, beet-sugar
- berry sugar
- birch sugar
- black sugar
- blanch sugar
- blood sugar
- blown sugar
- boiled sugar
- brain sugar
- brown sugar
- burnt sugar
- candied sugar
- candy sugar
- cane sugar, cane-sugar
- caramelised sugar, caramelized sugar
- caramel sugar
- caster sugar, castor sugar
- centrifugal sugar
- cinnamon sugar
- clarified sugar
- clayed sugar
- coarse sugar
- coffee sugar
- colored sugar crystals
- compound sugar
- compressible sugar
- confectioner's sugar, confectioners' sugar
- corn sugar
- corn sugar syrup
- cracked sugar
- crashed sugar
- crude sugar
- crushed sugar
- crystalline sugar
- crystallisable sugar, crystallizable sugar
- crystallised sugar, crystallized sugar
- crystal sugar
- culinary sugar
- cytidine diphosphosugar
- date sugar, date-sugar
- demerara sugar
- deoxy sugar, desoxy sugar
- diabetes sugar, diabetic sugar
- double-refined sugar
- double sugar
- English sugar
- essence of sugar
- feathered sugar
- female sugar
- fluid sugar
- flying sugar
- form sugar
- free sugar
- fruit sugar, fruit-sugar
- gelatin sugar
- granular sugar
- granulated sugar
- grape sugar, grape-sugar
- green sugar
- hard sugar
- heart sugar
- heavy sugar
- hepatic sugar
- high sugar
- horse sugar
- icing sugar
- inverted sugar
- invert sugar
- kitchen sugar
- licorice sugar
- liquid sugar
- loaf sugar, loaf-sugar
- low sugar
- lump of sugar
- lump sugar
- male sugar
- malt sugar, malt-sugar
- manna sugar
- maple sugar, maple-sugar
- milk sugar, milk-sugar
- mill white sugar
- modified Sheather's sugar flotation method
- moist sugar
- mountain-ash sugar
- Mount Sugarloaf
- muscle sugar
- muscovado sugar
- mushroom sugar
- natural sugar
- neither sugar nor salt
- nest sugar, nest-sugar
- nibbed sugar
- nib sugar
- non-sugar, nonsugar
- not made of sugar or salt
- nucleoside-diphosphate sugar
- oil sugar
- palm sugar, palm-sugar
- pearled sugar
- pearl sugar
- pectin sugar
- perilla sugar
- pine sugar
- polyisoprenyl phosphate sugar
- potato sugar, potato-sugar
- pounded sugar
- powdered sugar
- powder sugar
- preserving sugar
- pulled sugar
- raw sugar
- reducing sugar
- refined sugar
- refining sugar
- refuse sugar
- residual sugar
- rimming sugar
- RNA sugar
- rock sugar
- sanding sugar
- sifted sugar
- simple sugar
- soft sugar
- sorghum sugar
- specific soluble sugar
- spun sugar
- stamped sugar
- starch sugar
- store sugar
- strained sugar
- strike of sugar
- sugar acid
- Sugar Act
- sugar alcohol
- sugar aldehyde
- sugarallie, sugarally, sugarellie, sugarolly
- sugar almond, sugar-almond
- sugar and honey
- Sugar and Molasses Act
- sugar apple, sugar-apple
- sugar aquatint
- sugar-babe, sugar baby, sugar-baby
- sugarbag, sugar-bag
- sugar band
- sugar basin
- sugar bean, sugar-bean
- sugar beet
- sugar berg
- sugar berry, sugar-berry, sugarberry
- sugar bird, sugar-bird, sugarbird
- sugar block
- sugar boogers
- sugar bowl
- sugar brother
- sugar bush, sugar-bush, sugarbush
- sugar-butter sauce
- sugar buzz
- sugar camp, sugar-camp
- sugar candian, sugar-candian
- sugar candy, sugar-candy
- sugar cane, sugar-cane, sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum)
- sugar card
- sugar cataract
- sugar chain
- sugar charcoal
- Sugar City
- sugar-coat, sugarcoat
- sugar cookie
- sugar core
- sugar corn
- Sugar Creek
- Sugar Crisp
- sugar crust
- sugar cube, sugar-cube
- sugar daddy
- sugar diabetes
- sugar ester
- sugar fungus
- sugar glass
- sugar glider
- sugar grass, sugar-grass
- sugar grove
- Sugar Grove
- sugar gum, sugar-gum
- sugar hackberry
- sugar high
- Sugar Hill
- sugar honey ice tea
- sugar-house, sugarhouse
- sugar-icing liver
- sugar indigestion
- sugar kelp
- Sugar Land
- Sugarland Run
- sugar loaf, sugar-loaf, sugarloaf
- sugar lump, sugar-lump
- sugar mama, sugar mamma, sugar momma, sugar mummy
- sugar maple, sugar-maple
- sugar melon, sugar-melon
- sugar mill
- sugar mimic
- sugar mite, sugar-mite
- Sugar Mountain
- sugar mouse
- sugar nib
- sugar nip
- sugar nippers
- sugar-non-specific nuclease
- Sugar Notch
- sugar of acorns
- sugar of Alisaunder
- sugar of Babylon
- sugar of Barbary
- sugar of Candy
- sugar of Cipre
- sugar of flesh
- sugar of iron
- sugar of lead
- sugar of Marrokes
- sugar of milk
- sugar of muscle
- sugar of Saturn
- sugar of steel
- sugar on snow, sugar-on-snow
- sugar orchard, sugar-orchard
- sugar palm
- sugar paper, sugar-paper
- sugar pea
- sugar pease
- sugar pill
- sugar pine, sugar-pine
- sugar plantation
- sugar plum, sugar-plum, sugarplum
- sugar pucker
- sugar puff
- Sugar Puffs
- sugar push
- sugar quartz
- sugar rag
- sugar refinery, sugar-refinery
- sugar residue
- Sugar River
- sugar royal
- sugar rush
- sugar sack
- sugar sand
- sugar shack, sugar shanty
- sugar shell
- sugar sifter
- Sugar Smacks
- sugar snap, sugar snap pea
- sugar snow
- sugar soap
- sugar sorghum
- sugar spoon
- sugar squirrel
- sugar stick
- sugar substitute
- sugar sumac
- sugar syrup
- sugar test
- sugar thermometer
- sugar tit, sugar-tit
- sugar tongs
- sugar tree, sugar-tree
- sugar trough
- sugar tumor, sugar tumour
- Sugar Valley
- sugar vase
- sugar water
- sugar weed
- superfine sugar
- superior sugar
- Super Sugar Crisp
- syntactic sugar
- table sugar
- threshold sugar
- triple sugar iron agar
- true sugar
- turbinado sugar
- uncrystallisable sugar, uncrystallizable sugar
- unrefined sugar
- urine sugar
- vanilla sugar
- white sugar
- wood sugar, wood-sugar
- yellow sugar
- Tok Pisin: suga
- → Abenaki: sogal
- → Cree: ᓲᑳᐤ (sookaaw)
- → Fijian: suka
- → Gilbertese: tioka
- → Inuktitut: ᓱᑲᒃ (sokak)
- → Malecite-Passamaquoddy: sukol (or from French)
- → Maori: huka
- → Marshallese: juga
- → Samoan: suka
- → Shona: shuga
- → Sotho: tswekere
- → Tlingit: shóogaa
- → Tongan: suka
- → Tsonga: chukela
- → Tswana: sukiri
- → Unami: shukël (or from Dutch)
- → Wallisian: suka
- → Zulu: ushukela
- (transitive) To add sugar to; to sweeten with sugar.
- John heavily sugars his coffee.
- 1876, Emilie Foster, Teddy and His Friends:
- See, I've put sugar-plums on his coat for fancy buttons, sugared his shirt-frill, and put on a red almond to his hat-front.
- 1905, “The Duke of Castle Blanco”, in The Quiver, page 1007:
- "There spoke the real British scorn," she said, sugaring her tea, "the fine British contempt for every other nation."
- 2002, Frank Tallis, Hidden Minds: A History of the Unconscious:
- Moreover, the residents recalled that the aristocrat's pet canary had become like a personal retainer, waking his master in the morning and sugaring his drink.
- (transitive) To make (something unpleasant) seem less so.
- She has a gift for sugaring what would otherwise be harsh words.
- 1890, Anson De Puy Van Buren, Michigan in her pioneer politics:
- He also published the "Weekly Recorder," an indefinite title, which was his way of sugaring what soon became in the region where it was published, Mt. Pleasant, Ohio, a very bitter pill.
- 1917, Mrs. Florence Guertin Tuttle, Give My Love to Maria:
- She shook her head sadly at him. "No, it won't do, Arthur. I'm not in a mood to be sugared."
- 2001, Graham Fraser, René Lévesque and the Parti Québécois in Power:
- But step by step, aided by Claude Morin's arguments, Lévesque had led the party through the process of sugaring what he saw as the pill of independence.
- (US, Canada, regional) In making maple sugar, to complete the process of boiling down the syrup till it is thick enough to crystallize; to approach or reach the state of granulation; with the preposition off.
- 1851, J. D. H., “On Making Maple Syrup”, in The Ohio Cultivator, volume 7, page 91:
- To sugar off, I prefer using a kettle that will hold about half a. barrel; and boil over a brisk, steady fire, till on dropping some of the syrup into cold water it will break like glass, then dip it into wooden trays to cool, and when it is grained stir it briskly.
- 1994, “Sugaring Off”, in Nindinawemaagan Giwitaa'ayeyii, volume 6, page 55:
- A long time ago my grandmother and I used to boil maple sap. When she sugared off, I stood there.
- 2004, Lois Sakany, Canada: A Primary Source Cultural Guide:
- During the spring in Quebec and Ontario, maple syrup is harvested, or "sugared off," a process which is usually celebrated as a social event.
- (entomology) To apply sugar to trees or plants in order to catch moths.
- 1876, W. Sandison, “Note on sugaring”, in The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, volume 12, page 207:
- Some entomologists assert that it is useless to sugar when ivy is in bloom.
- 1921, Arthur Herbert Savory, Grain and Chaff from an English Manor:
- The latter are best taken by "sugaring" — painting patches of mixed beer and sugar on a series of tree trunks, and making several rounds at twilight with a lantern and a cyanide bottle.
- 2006, William J. Sutherland, Ecological Census Techniques: A Handbook:
- Sugaring attracts some species of moth that do not readily come to light.
- (programming, transitive) To rewrite (source code) using syntactic sugar.
- 2002, Jonathan Bromley, “Fixed point arithmetic”, in comp.arch.fpga (Usenet):
- You can sugar the syntax of constants thus: […]
- 2006, Neil Madden, “Re: Closures”, in comp.lang.tcl (Usenet):
- Sure, you could sugar the latter to look like the former (effectively implementing closures as objects), but it seems simpler to just allow the former.
- (transitive) To compliment (a person).
- To remove hair using a paste of sugar, water, and lemon juice.
Derived terms Edit
- (minced oath) Used in place of shit!
- Oh, sugar!
- 1920, James A. Cooper, Tobias O' the Light: A Story of Cape Cod:
- "Oh, sugar! I suppose that's so," reflected Tobias, filling his pipe.
- 2007, Melinda Henneberger, If They Only Listened to Us: What Women Voters Want Politicians to Hear:
- But they do not even hope for such a thing in '08, and fear far worse: Sister Suzanne Thibault, a lifelong Republican so mild she shouts, “Oh, sugar!” when annoyed, posits that if Hillary Clinton were nominated, “She'd get killed, literally assassinated. We have too many right-wing people out there who would do that."
- 2012, Macy Beckett, Sultry with a Twist:
- “Oh, sugar.” His room was empty.
Derived terms Edit
See also Edit
- “sugar”, in The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 5th edition, Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2016, →ISBN.
- “sugar”, in Collins English Dictionary.
- “sugar”, in Dictionary.com Unabridged, Dictionary.com, LLC, 1995–present.
- Douglas Harper (2001–2023), “sugar”, in Online Etymology Dictionary.
- “sugar” in Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Longman.
- “sugar”, in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, 1996–present.
- “sugar”, in Webster’s Revised Unabridged Dictionary, Springfield, Mass.: G. & C. Merriam, 1913, →OCLC.
Alternative forms Edit
- to suck
- 1858, O Seor Pedro, Romance Gallego..., Santiago: Imprenta de Manuel Mirás, page 2:
- Deixáradesme ir pra terra, pra que as miñocas as tripas e os ósos me esfuracasen e me sugasen axiña
- You'll let me go to the earth, so that promptly the earthworms drill and suck my guts and bones
- Note: sug- are changed to sugu- before front vowels (e).
Derived terms Edit
Related terms Edit
- “semesuga” in Xavier Varela Barreiro & Xavier Gómez Guinovart: Corpus Xelmírez - Corpus lingüístico da Galicia medieval. SLI / Grupo TALG / ILG, 2006–2018.
- “sugar” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006–2013.
- “sugar” in Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago: ILG.
- “zugar” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.
- (transitive) to suck (candy, etc., something from something)
- Sugar la suko de oranjo.
- To suck the juice from an orange.
|adjective active participle||suganta||suginta||sugonta|
|adverbial active participle||sugante||suginte||sugonte|
|nominal active participle||singular||suganto||suginto||sugonto|
|adjective passive participle||sugata||sugita||sugota|
|adverbial passive participle||sugate||sugite||sugote|
|nominal passive participle||singular||sugato||sugito||sugoto|
Derived terms Edit
- (Classical) IPA(key): /ˈsuː.ɡar/, [ˈs̠uːɡär]
- (modern Italianate Ecclesiastical) IPA(key): /ˈsu.ɡar/, [ˈsuːɡär]
- Hyphenation: su‧gar
- to suck
(ele / ela / você)
(eles / elas / vocês)
|Negative (não)||não sugues||não sugue||não suguemos||não sugueis||não suguem|
- Venetian conjugation varies from one region to another. Hence, the following conjugation should be considered as typical, not as exhaustive.
|indicative||mi||ti||eło / eła||noialtri / noialtre||voialtri / voialtre||łuri / łore|
|present||sugo||(te) sughi||(el/ła) suga||sughémo, sugòn||sughé||(i/łe) suga|
|imperfect||sugava||(te) sugavi||(el/ła) sugava||sugàvimo||sugavi||(i/łe) sugava|
|future||sugarò||(te) sugarè||(el/ła) sugarà||sugarémo||sugarè||(i/łe) sugarà|
|conditional||mi||ti||eło / eła||noialtri / noialtre||voialtri / voialtre||łuri / łore|
|present||sugarìa||(te) sugarisi||(el/ła) sugarìa||sugarìsimo||sugarisi||(i/łe) sugarìa|
|subjunctive||che mi||che ti||che eło / eła||che noialtri / noialtre||che voialtri / voialtre||che łuri / łore|
|present||sughe, suga||(te) sughi||(el/ła) sughe, (el/ła) suga||sughémo, sugone||sughé||(i/łe) sughe, (i/łe) suga|
|imperfect||sugase||(te) sugasi||(el/ła) sugase||sugàsimo||sugasi||(i/łe) sugase|
|imperative||—||ti||eło / eła||noialtri / noialtre||voialtri / voialtre||łuri / łore|
|—||(te) suga||(el/ła) suga, (el/ła) sughe||sughémo||sughé||(i/łe) suga, (i/łe) sughe|