ChineseEdit

friend friend
simp. and trad.
(朋友)
 
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Pronunciation 1Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (3) (35)
Final () (129) (136)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () I III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bəŋ/ /ɦɨuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/bəŋ/ /ɦiuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/bəŋ/ /ɣiəuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/bəŋ/ /ɦuwX/
Li
Rong
/bəŋ/ /ɣiuX/
Wang
Li
/bəŋ/ /ɣĭəuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱəŋ/ /i̯ə̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
péng yǒu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
pang4 jau5
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
péng yǒu
Middle
Chinese
‹ bong › ‹ hjuwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[b]ˁəŋ/ /*[ɢ]ʷəʔ/
English set of cowries; friend friend

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 9663 15596
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*bɯːŋ/ /*ɢʷɯʔ/

NounEdit

朋友

  1. friend (Classifier: ; )
    童年朋友  ―  tóngnián de péngyǒu  ―  childhood friend
    結交朋友 / 结交朋友  ―  jiéjiāo xīn péngyǒu  ―  to make new friends
    知道朋友哪裡 [MSC, trad.]
    知道朋友哪里 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā bù zhīdào péngyǒu de jiā zài nǎlǐ. [Pinyin]
    He doesn't know where his friend's house is.
    呢個朋友 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
    呢个朋友 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
    ni1 go3 hai6 ngo5 go3 pang4 jau5. [Jyutping]
    This is my friend.
    朋友佗位 [Hokkien, trad.]
    朋友佗位 [Hokkien, simp.]
    I m̄ chai pêng-iú ê chhù tī tó-ūi. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    He doesn't know where his friend's house is.
    朋友底塊 [Teochew, trad.]
    朋友底块 [Teochew, simp.]
    i1 m6 zai1 pêng5 iu2 gai5 lai6 do6 di7 go3. [Peng'im]
    He doesn't know where his friend's house is.
    近況斷續朋友耳畔 [MSC, trad.]
    近况断续朋友耳畔 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ de jìnkuàng duànxù cóng péngyǒu kǒu zhōng chuán dào wǒ ěrpàn. [Pinyin]
    Your news intermittently came to my ears through friends' words.
    真的只是普通朋友 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
    Wǒ gēn tā zhēnde zhǐshì pǔtōng péngyǒu. [Pinyin]
    She and I are really just friends.
    世界可悲事情莫過於喜歡朋友 [MSC, trad.]
    世界可悲事情莫过于喜欢朋友 [MSC, simp.]
    Shìjiè shàng zuì kěbēi de shìqíng, mòguòyú nǐ xǐhuān tā, tā què zhǐ bǎ nǐ dāng péngyǒu. [Pinyin]
    The saddest thing in the world is liking someone but they only see you as a friend.
  2. (euphemistic) boyfriend or girlfriend; partner
SynonymsEdit
  • (friend):
AntonymsEdit
HyponymsEdit
  • (friend): 好友 (hǎoyǒu, “good friend”), 老友 (lǎoyǒu, “old friend”)
Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

Further readingEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


NounEdit

朋友

  1. (archaic) large number of retainers
  2. (archaic, Ming dynasty) designation given by government bureaucrats to Confucian students
SynonymsEdit
  • (large number of retainers): (archaic) 群臣 (qúnchén)

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (朋友):

Others:


JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
ほう
Jinmeiyō
ゆう
Grade: 2
on’yomi

/hoː iu//hoːjiu//hoːjuː/

From Middle Chinese compound 朋友 (MC bəŋ ɦɨuX).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(ほう)(ゆう) (hōyūほういう (fouiu)?
(alternative reading hiragana ぼうゆう, rōmaji bōyū, historical hiragana ぼういう)

  1. (uncommon) a friend
    Synonyms: 友達 (tomodachi), 仲間 (nakama), 友人 (yūjin) (more common)
    Antonym: 仇敵 (kyūteki)
Derived termsEdit
ProverbsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
ぽん
Jinmeiyō
ゆう
Grade: 2
Irregular
Alternative spellings
ポンユー
ポン友

Borrowing from Mandarin 朋友 (péngyǒu).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)

NounEdit

朋友(ポンユー) (pon'yū

  1. (slang, dated) a friend

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

NounEdit

朋友

  1. Hán tự form of bằng hữu (friend).