See also: , , and
U+5BB6, 家
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5BB6

[U+5BB5]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5BB7]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 40, +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 十一尸人 (JMSO), four-corner 30232, composition )

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 286, character 17
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7169
  • Dae Jaweon: page 566, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 930, character 15
  • Unihan data for U+5BB6

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Oracle bone script: Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kraː) : semantic (roof) + phonetic 𢑓 (, male pig) (see: 姚萱.殷墟甲骨文“■”、“■”兩字考辨[J].中國文字研究(第二十三輯).上海書店出版社,2016(01):16-22.). See 𢑓 (xiá) for more.

Later the phonetic component have been corrupted to 豕 so Shuowen Jiezi considered it

semantic (roof) + abbreviated phonetic (OC *kraː, pig).

Etymology 1 edit

simp. and trad.
2nd round simp. 𡦼
alternative forms
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)
 
一棟住著一家人的房子

Cognate with Tibetan མཁར (mkhar, castle; house) (Schuessler, 2007).

(OC *kraːs, “to give a girl in marriage”) is the exoactive of (OC *kraː, “house; household; family”).

Pronunciation 1 edit


Note:
  • ke/kiee - vernacular;
  • ka/kia - literary.
Note:
  • gê1 - vernacular;
  • gia1 - literary (used only in operas).
Note:
  • 1cia - literary (Shanghainese, Suzhounese), standard reading (Hangzhounese);
  • 1ka - colloquial (Shanghainese, Suzhounese), younger speakers (Hangzhounese).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕia⁵⁵/
Harbin /t͡ɕia⁴⁴/
Tianjin /t͡ɕiɑ²¹/
Jinan /t͡ɕia²¹³/
Qingdao /t͡ɕia²¹³/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕia²⁴/
Xi'an /t͡ɕia²¹/
Xining /t͡ɕia⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕia⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕia³¹/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕia⁴⁴/
Wuhan /t͡ɕia⁵⁵/ 國~
/ka⁵⁵/ 人~
Chengdu /t͡ɕia⁵⁵/
Guiyang /t͡ɕia⁵⁵/
Kunming /t͡ɕia̠⁴⁴/
Nanjing /t͡ɕiɑ³¹/
Hefei /t͡ɕia²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕia¹¹/
Pingyao /t͡ɕiɑ¹³/
/t͡ɕiɑ⁵³/ 娘~
Hohhot /t͡ɕia³¹/
/t͡ɕiaʔ⁰/ 人~
Wu Shanghai /ka⁵³/
/t͡ɕia⁵³/
Suzhou /kɑ⁵⁵/
/t͡ɕiɑ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕiɑ³³/
Wenzhou /ko³³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕia³¹/
/ka³¹/
Tunxi /kɔ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕia³³/
/ka³³/
Xiangtan /kɒ³³/
Gan Nanchang /kɑ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /ka⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kɑ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ka⁵³/
Nanning /ka⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /ka⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /ka⁵⁵/
/ke⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /ka⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /ka⁵⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /ke³³/
/ka³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ka²³/
/kia²³/
/kɛ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (98)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter kae
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠa/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚa/
Shao
Rongfen
/ka/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaɨ/
Li
Rong
/ka/
Wang
Li
/ka/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ka/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiā
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gaa1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiā
Middle
Chinese
‹  ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁra/
English household

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 5919
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kraː/
Definitions edit

  1. home
      ―  huíjiā  ―  to return home
    這裡 [MSC, trad.]
    这里 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ de jiā jiù zài zhèlǐ. [Pinyin]
    My home is here.
  2. family; household (Classifier: c)
      ―  jiātíng  ―  family
      ―  jiāshì  ―  family matters
      ―  jiā  ―  The Li family
      ―  jiā yǒu sì kǒu rén.  ―  We are a family of four.
  3. (polite, for family member) my
      ―  jiā  ―  my father
  4. domesticated; domestic
      ―  jiā  ―  domestic rabbit
      ―  jiāmāo  ―  domestic cat
  5. Classifier for families, businesses and companies.
    餐廳餐厅  ―  jiā cāntīng  ―  a restaurant
    商店商店  ―  liǎng jiā shāngdiàn  ―  two shops
    人家  ―  jiā rénjiā  ―  four families
  6. school of thought; philosophical school
      ―  jiā  ―  Confucian school
      ―  Dàojiā  ―  Daoist School
    之言  ―  jiāzhīyán  ―  one's own thought, opinion, interpretation, etc.
  7. (historical, obsolete) fief of ministers or senior officials
  8. Suffix denoting a person with a certain occupation or social standing. -er
      ―  chuánjiā  ―  boatperson
      ―  hángjiā  ―  expert; connoisseur
  9. Suffix denoting specialist in a certain activity or field. -ist; -er
    藝術艺术  ―  yìshùjiā  ―  artist
    科學科学  ―  kēxuéjiā  ―  scientist
    野心  ―  yěxīnjiā  ―  person of ambition; careerist
  10. (in a game) party; side
      ―  duìjiā  ―  opposite player
      ―  zhuāngjiā  ―  banker; house
  11. Suffix used after a noun to specify a type of person.
      ―  qìngjia  ―  one's child's parents-in-law
      ―  chóujiā  ―  personal enemy
    老人身體 [MSC, trad.]
    老人身体 [MSC, simp.]
    Lǎorénjiā shēntǐ kě hái hǎo a? [Pinyin]
    Is the parent of yours well?
  12. a surname
Synonyms edit
  • (family):
  • (suffix used after a noun to specify a type of person): 家家 (jiājiā), (Cantonese) 人家 (jan4 gaa1)
Compounds edit

Pronunciation 2 edit

Definitions edit

  1. (Southern Min) Only used in 家己 (ka-kī).

Pronunciation 3 edit

Definitions edit

  1. (Southern Min) Only used in 私家.

Etymology 2 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“stubborn, obstinate, intransigent”).
(This character is the simplified form of ).
Notes:

Etymology 3 edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Pronunciation edit


Definitions edit

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Etymology 4 edit

Cognate with ().

Pronunciation edit

Definitions edit

  1. Only used in 大家 (dàgū).

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
いえ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

⟨ipe1/ipʲe//iɸe//iwe//ie/

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *ipia. Possibly cognate with Old Korean 邑勒 (iprʌk, house).[1]

Possibly related to (iho → io, temporary hut).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(いえ) (ieいへ (ife)?

  1. a house
  2. one's own home
  3. a home, household
  4. a family

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
うち
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Cognate with (uchi, middle),[2] from Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *utui.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(うち) (uchi

  1. a house
  2. one's house
Usage notes edit
  • Often written in hiragana as うち to avoid confusion with (いえ) (ie) above.
Descendants edit
  • English: hooch

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 2
irregular

Contraction of uchi above.

Often following the genitive case marker (no) which contracts to -n.

Noun edit

() (chi

  1. a house
    (おれ)()()ない?Orenchi ni konai?Wanna come to my place?

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
3
[noun] house
[suffix] shop, establishment
[suffix] someone who sells or does that thing; -ist
[suffix] someone with that characteristic
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 5 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC kae).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound), so likely a latter borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Suffix edit

() (-ka

  1. an expert, professional, performer
Derived terms edit

Etymology 6 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC kae).

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound), so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Suffix edit

() (-ke

  1. representing relationship to a family
    (たいら)()Taira-kethe Taira family

References edit

  1. ^ Vovin, Alexander (2017) “Origins of the Japanese Language”, in Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Linguistics[1], →DOI
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology 1 edit

Hanja edit

(eumhun (jip ga))

  1. Hanja form? of (home; family; household).
Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

Hanja edit

(eumhun 여자 (yeoja go))

  1. (obsolete) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (woman).)

Okinawan edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Noun edit

(やー) (

  1. house

Derived terms edit

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: gia[1]
: Nôm readings: nhà[2]

  1. chữ Hán form of gia (home, family).
  2. chữ Hán form of gia (expert, professional, -ist, -er).
  3. Nôm form of nhà (house, home, domestic).
  4. Nôm form of nhà (dynasty).

References edit

Yonaguni edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Noun edit

(だー) (

  1. house