EnglishEdit

 
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EtymologyEdit

Learned borrowing from Latin animus (the mind, in a great variety of meanings: the rational soul in man, intellect, consciousness, will, intention, courage, spirit, sensibility, feeling, passion, pride, vehemence, wrath, etc., the breath, life, soul), from Proto-Italic *anamos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enh₁mos, from *h₂enh₁- (to breathe). Closely related to Latin anima, which is a feminine form. Doublet of anima.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

animus (usually uncountable, plural animuses)

  1. The basic impulses and instincts which govern one's actions.
  2. A feeling of enmity, animosity or ill will.
    • 2005, Christian Science Monitor, April 22
      The current row arose swiftly, sparked both by historical animus and jockeying over future power and place in Asia - and it surprised many observers in the depth of antipathy on both sides.
  3. (Jungian psychology) The masculine aspect of the feminine psyche or personality.

SynonymsEdit

Related termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

Further readingEdit

AnagramsEdit


EsperantoEdit

VerbEdit

animus

  1. conditional of animi

LatinEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Italic *anamos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enh₁mos, a nominal derivative of *h₂enh₁- (breathe). Cognate with Ancient Greek ἄνεμος (ánemos, wind, breeze), Old Armenian հողմ (hołm, wind), Old Frisian omma (breath), English onde (breath) (dialectal), Norwegian ånde (breath), and possibly Sanskrit अनिल (ánila, air, wind); compare also Tocharian B āñme (self; soul) and Old Armenian անձն (anjn, person).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

animus m (genitive animī); second declension

  1. that life-giving aspect which animates: life, life force, soul, vitality
    Tibi bene ex animo volo.
    I wish you well from my soul.
    • bono animo esseto be sure, to be confident
    • 45 BCE, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Tusculanae Disputationes ; 1.47.1:
      nam nunc quidem, quamquam foramina illa, quae patent ad animum a corpore, callidissimo artificio natura fabricata est, tamen terrenis concretisque corporibus sunt intersaepta quodam modo: cum autem nihil erit praeter animum, nulla res obiecta impediet, quo minus percipiat, quale quidque sit.
      for at present, notwithstanding nature has contrived, with the greatest skill, those channels which lead from the body to the soul, yet are they, in some way or other, stopped up with earthy and concrete bodies; but when we shall be nothing but soul, then nothing will interfere to prevent our seeing everything in its real substance, and in its true character.
    • 77 CE, Gaius Plinius Secundus, Naturalis Historia ; 35.98.1-4:
      Aequalis eius fuit Aristides Thebanus. is omnium primus animum pinxit et sensus hominis expressit, quae vocant Graeci ἤθη, item perturbationes, durior paulo in coloribus.
      Contemporary with him (Apelles) was Aristides of Thebes. He was the first of all who depicted vitality and expressed the emotion of a human being, what the Greeks term ēthē, and also human passion; he was a bit hard in his colours.
  2. the intellectual dimension of the human mind (the seat of the rational and other thoughts he/she experiences): intellect, mind, conscience, reason, sensibility, understanding
    Synonym: mēns
    • 27 BCE – 9 BCE, Lucius Annaeus Seneca, Epistulae Morales ad Lucilium , Epistula LXXX:
      Corpus enim multis eget rebus, ut valeat; animus ex se crescit, se ipse alit, se exercet.
      For although the body needs many things in order to be strong, yet the mind grows from within, giving to itself nourishment and exercise.
    • 98 CE, Publius Cornelius Tacitus, De vita Iulii Agricolae , Epistula LXXX:
      id filiae quoque uxorique praeceperim, sic patris, sic mariti memoriam venerari, ut omnia facta dictaque eius secum revolvant, formamque ac figuram animi magis quam corporis complectantur, non quia intercedendum putem imaginibus quae marmore aut aere finguntur, sed, ut vultus hominum, ita simulacra vultus imbecilla ac mortalia sunt, forma mentis aeterna, quam tenere et exprimere non per alienam materiam et artem, sed tuis ipse moribus possis.
      This I would preach to wife and daughter, to so venerate the memory of husband and father as to contemplate his every word and action, and to cling to the form and feature of the mind rather than the body; not because I think bronze or marble likenesses should be suppressed, but that the face of a man and its semblance are both mortal and transient, while the form of the mind is eternal, and can only be captured and expressed not through the materials and artistry of another, but through one’s own character alone. (translator: A.S. Kline
  3. the affective dimension of the human mind (the seat of the emotions and feelings he/she experiences): heart, mind, spirit
    Synonym: anima
    • Caesar, de Bello Gallico ; 1, 39, 1-9:
      Dum paucos dies ad Vesontionem rei frumentariae commeatusque causa moratur, ex percontatione nostrorum vocibusque Gallorum ac mercatorum, qui ingenti magnitudine corporum Germanos, incredibili virtute atque exercitatione in armis esse praedicabant—saepe numero sese cum his congressos ne vultum quidem atque aciem oculorum dicebant ferre potuisse—, tantus subito timor omnem exercitum occupavit, ut non mediocriter omnium mentes animosque perturbaret.
      While he is tarrying a few days at Vesontio , on account of corn and provisions; from the inquiries of our men and the reports of the Gauls and traders (who asserted that the Germans were men of huge stature, of incredible valor and practice in arms-that oftentimes they, on encountering them, could not bear even their countenance, and the fierceness of their eyes)-so great a panic on a sudden seized the whole army, as to discompose the minds and spirits of all in no slight degree.
  4. the essence of that which is situated within the affective mind: affect, emotion, feeling, impulse, passion
    Synonyms: adfectus, affectus, sēnsus
    movere animum alicuiusto affect or impress someone’s mind (for example, enrage him)
    • Publius Terentius Afer, Andria , act 4, scene 4, lines 792-795:
      DAVUS: hic socer est. alio pacto haud poterat fieri ut sciret haec quae voluimus. / MYSIS: praediceres. / DAVUS: paullum interesse censes ex animo omnia, ut fert natura, facias an de industria?
      DAVUS: This is the bride's father. It couldn't any other way have been managed that he should know the things that we wanted him to know. / MYSIS:You should have told me that before. / DAVUS: Do you suppose that it makes little difference whether you do things out of impulse, as nature prompts, or from premeditation?
    • 20 BCE, Quintus Horatius Flaccus, Epistularum liber primus , Epistula 14, lines 6-9:
      Me quamvis Lamiae pietas et cura moratur / fratrem maerentis, rapto de fratre dolentis / insolabiliter, tamen istuc mens animusque / fert et avet spatiis obstantia rumpere claustra.
      Though I’m kept here, by Lamia’s filial affection / And grief: he mourns his brother, sighs inconsolably / For his lost brother, yet thought and feeling draw me back, / Longing to burst the barriers that obstruct the course. (translation by A.S. Kline)
  5. certain particular emotional aspects of one's affective makeup: affection, aggression, courage, pride, will (as "firmity or fixity of purpose": determination, firmness, resoluteness, resolve; Cf. votum, voluntas), wrath (or anger, ire)
    • 46 BCE, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Pro Marcello , 8, 6-10:
      Animum vincere, iracundiam cohibere, victo temperare, adversarium nobilitate, ingenio, virtute praestantem non modo extollere iacentem sed etiam amplificare eius pristinam dignitatem, haec qui faciat, non ego eum cum summis viris comparo, sed simillimum deo iudico.
      To subdue one's aggression, to repress one's irascibility, to show restraint to a subdued adversary, ennobling him, recognising his skill and manly character, even to increase his previous dignity, these are actions of such a nature, that the man who does them, I do not compare to the most mature of men, but I consider equal to a god.
    • 66 BCE – 43 BCE, Marcus Tullius Cicero, In Favor of Cluentius , 109.1-109.2:
      Iam insolentiam noratis hominis, noratis animos eius ac spiritus tribunicios.
      Already you know the insolence of the man. You know what a tribune-like pride and arrogance he has.
    • 62 BCE – 43 BCE, Marcus Tullius Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares , Epistula 5, 2, 8:
      ...virtute atque animo resistere...
      ...to resist with manliness and courage...
    • 44 BCE – 40 BCE, Gaius Sallustius Crispus, De coniuratione Catilinae , Paragraph 20, 3-6:
      Sed quia multis et magnis tempestatibus vos cognovi fortis fidosque mihi, eo animus ausus est maxumum atque pulcherrumum facinus incipere, simul quia vobis eadem, quae mihi, bona malaque esse intellexi; nam idem velle atque idem nolle, ea demum firma amicitia est. Sed ego quae mente agitavi, omnes iam antea divorsi audistis. Ceterum mihi in dies magis animus accenditur, cum considero, quae condicio vitae futura sit, nisi nosmet ipsi vindicamus in libertatem.
      But because I have learned in many and great emergencies that you are brave and faithful to me, I have had courage to begin a mighty and glorious enterprise, and also because I perceive that you and I hold the same view of what is good and evil; for agreement in likes and dislikes — this, and this only, is what constitutes true friendship. As to the designs which I have formed, they have already been explained to you all individually. But my will is fired more and more every day, when I consider under what conditions we shall live if we do not take steps to emancipate ourselves.
  6. any emotionally based incentive to act in a particular way: motive, motivation
    Synonym: mōtīvum (Late Latin)
    • Suetonius, De vita Caesarum Book II, Divus Augustus:
      Ne enumerem, quot et quos diversarum partium venia et incolumitate donatos principem etiam in civitate locum tenere passus sit: Iunium Novatum et Cassium Patavinum e plebe homines alterum pecunia, alterum levi exilio punire satis habuit, cum ille Agrippae iuvenis nomine asperrimam de se epistulam in vulgus edidisset, hic convivio pleno proclamasset neque votum sibi neque animum deesse confodiendi eum.
      Without enumerating all of the men of the opposing faction whom he not only pardoned and spared, but allowed to hold high positions in the state, I note that he thought it sufficient to punish two plebeians, Junius Novatus and Cassius Patavinus, with a fine and with an uncumbersome form of exile respectively, and this though the former had publicly disseminated a scathing letter about him under the pseudonym of young Agrippa, while the latter had proclaimed at a large banquet that he lacked neither the determination nor the motivation to stab him to death.
  7. any (especially emotion-based) bending of the mind towards a particular purpose: aspiration, intention
    Synonym: intentiō
  8. (metonymically): the inherent emotional disposition of a human being: disposition, inclination, nature, temperament. (by extension of the affective dimension)
    Synonyms: mōs, dispositiō, inclīnātiō, temperamentum
  9. the instant mental state of a human being: affect, mood, temper
  10. heart, soul (as a term of endearment)
  11. (plural) bravado, elation, high spirits

DeclensionEdit

Second-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative animus animī
Genitive animī animōrum
Dative animō animīs
Accusative animum animōs
Ablative animō animīs
Vocative anime animī

Usage notesEdit

Latin "animus" had an exceedingly broad semantic field, within which both the intellectual and emotional aspects of the human mind were subsumed. Even so, the affective, emotional aspect of the mind, and of that the particularly strong and adversarial human emotions, seem to have taken on more weight, a consideration which several of those Latin terms derived from "animus", including animosus, animositas and pusillanimis, reflect.

Related termsEdit

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

  • Old French: ame
  • Spanish: alma
  • Catalan: ànim
  • English: animus
  • Italian: animo
  • Portuguese: animus, ânimo
  • Spanish: ánimo

ReferencesEdit

  • animus in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • animus in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • animus in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to attract universal attention: omnium animos or mentes in se convertere
    • to turn one's eyes (ears, attention) towards an object: oculos (aures, animum) advertere ad aliquid
    • a man loses his senses, becomes unconscious: animus relinquit aliquem
    • Fortune makes men shortsighted, infatuates them: fortuna caecos homines efficit, animos occaecat
    • to become estranged, alienated from some one: voluntatemor animum alicuius a se abalienare, aliquem a se abalienare or alienare
    • gratitude: gratus (opp. ingratus) animus
    • to reconcile two people; to be a mediator: reconciliare alicuius animum or simply aliquem alicui
    • to be reconciled; to make up a quarrel: sibi aliquem, alicuius animum reconciliare or reconciliari alicui
    • to hold aloof from all amusement: animum a voluptate sevocare
    • for one's own diversion; to satisfy a whim: voluptatis or animi causa (B. G. 5. 12)
    • to recruit oneself, seek relaxation: animum relaxare, reficere, recreare or simply se reficere, se recreare, refici, recreari (ex aliqua re)
    • to indulge oneself: animum or simply se remittere
    • to turn one's attention to a thing: animum attendere ad aliquid
    • an idea strikes me: haec cogitatio subit animum
    • to draw away some one's attention from a thing: alicuius animum ab aliqua re abducere
    • to direct one's attention..: cogitationem, animum in aliquid intendere (Acad. 4. 46)
    • if I am not mistaken: nisi (animus) me fallit
    • according to my strong conviction: ex animi mei sententia (vid. sect. XI. 2)
    • to persuade oneself to..: animum inducere c. Inf. (not in animum inducere)
    • to cultivate the mind: animum, ingenium excolere (not colere)
    • mental culture: animi, ingenii cultus (not cultura)
    • to apply oneself to the study of philosophy: animum appellere or se applicare ad philosophiam
    • to bring forward a proof of the immortality of the soul: argumentum afferre, quo animos immortales esse demonstratur
    • to make an impression on one's audience: animos audientium permovere, inflammare
    • to rivet the attention of..: animos tenere
    • to become a writer, embrace a literary career: animum ad scribendum appellere, applicare
    • humour; disposition: animi affectio or habitus (De Inv. 2. 5)
    • to try to divine a person's disposition: animos tentare (Cluent. 63. 176)
    • to make a person change his intention: animum alicuius or simply aliquem flectere
    • the emotions, feelings: animi motus, commotio, permotio
    • to touch a person's heart, move him: alicuius animum commovere
    • to make an impression on a person's mind: alicuius animum pellere
    • what sort of humour are you in: quid tibi animi est?
    • to put a man in a pleasurable frame of mind: animum alicuius ad laetitiam excitare
    • I have become callous to all pain: animus meus ad dolorem obduruit (Fam. 2. 16. 1)
    • anxiety gnaws at the heart and incapacitates it: aegritudo exest animum planeque conficit (Tusc. 3. 13. 27)
    • to be brave, courageous: bonum animum habere
    • to take courage: animus alicui accedit, crescit
    • to take courage: animum capere, colligere
    • to take courage again: animum recipere (Liv. 2. 50)
    • to succeed in encouraging a person: animum facere, addere alicui
    • to strengthen, confirm a person's courage: animum alicuius confirmare
    • to increase a person's courage: animum alicui augere (B. G. 7. 70)
    • to re-inspire courage: animum alicuius redintegrare
    • their spirits are broken: animus frangitur, affligitur, percellitur, debilitatur
    • to fire with courage: animos militum accendere
    • their courage is ebbing: animi cadunt
    • to lose courage; to despair: animum demittere
    • to encourage a person: erigere alicuius animum or aliquem
    • to inspire the spiritless and prostrate with new vigour: excitare animum iacentem et afflictum (opp. frangere animum)
    • to disconcert a person: animum alicuius de statu, de gradu demovere (more strongly depellere, deturbare)
    • to hover between hope and fear: inter spem metumque suspensum animi esse
    • to be in suspense, waiting for a thing: exspectatione alicuius rei pendēre (animi) (Leg. Agr. 2. 25. 66)
    • (ambiguous) to love deeply: aliquem ex animo or ex animi sententia amare (Q. Fr. 1. 1. 5)
    • enthusiasm: ardor, inflammatio animi, incitatio mentis, mentis vis incitatior
    • to damp, chill enthusiasm: ardorem animi restinguere
    • his enthusiasm has abated, cooled down: ardor animi resēdit, consedit
    • my mind forebodes misfortune: animus praesāgit malum
    • to cool one's anger: animum explere
    • to prevent some one from growing angry, appease his anger: animum alicuius ab iracundia revocare
    • to abandon oneself to vice: animum vitiis dedere
    • to have self-control; to restrain oneself, master one's inclinations: animum regere, coercere, cohibere
    • to have self-control; to restrain oneself, master one's inclinations: animum vincere (Marcell. 3. 8)
    • unrestrained, unbridled lust: indomitae animi cupiditates
    • to eradicate passion from the mind: animi perturbationes exstirpare
    • to hurt some one's feelings: offendere aliquem, alicuius animum
    • to feel hurt by something: offendi aliqua re (animus offenditur)
    • a guilty conscience: animus male sibi conscius
    • on principle: ratione; animi quodam iudicio
    • character: natura et mores; vita moresque; indoles animi ingeniique; or simply ingenium, indoles, natura, mores
    • inconsistency; changeability: mobilitas et levitas animi
    • to fill the souls of one's audience with devotion: audientium animos religione perfundere (Liv. 10. 388)
    • to have power over the people by trading on their religious scruples: religione obstrictos habere multitudinis animos (Liv. 6. 1. 10)
    • I swear on my conscience: ex animi mei sententia iuro
    • an independent spirit: a partibus rei publicae animus liber (Sall. Cat. 4. 2)
    • to encourage, embolden the soldiery: animos militum confirmare (B. G. 5. 49)
    • (ambiguous) to picture a thing to oneself; to imagine: oculis, ante oculos (animo) proponere aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to be well-disposed towards..: benevolo animo esse in aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to look favourably upon; to support: propenso animo, studio esse or propensa voluntate esse in aliquem (opp. averso animo esse ab aliquo)
    • (ambiguous) to indulge oneself: animo or simply sibi indulgere
    • (ambiguous) to be magnanimous, broad-minded: magno animo esse
    • (ambiguous) (1) to be attentive; (2) to keep one's presence of mind: animo adesse
    • (ambiguous) to obscure the mental vision: mentis quasi luminibus officere (vid. sect. XIII. 6) or animo caliginem offundere
    • (ambiguous) to form an idea of a thing, imagine, conceive: animo, cogitatione aliquid fingere (or simply fingere, but without sibi), informare
    • (ambiguous) to form an idea of a thing, imagine, conceive: animo concipere aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to form a conception of a thing beforehand: animo, cogitatione aliquid praecipere (Off 1. 23. 81)
    • (ambiguous) to grasp a thing mentally: animo, mente, cogitatione aliquid comprehendere, complecti
    • (ambiguous) a vague notion presents itself to my mind: aliquid animo meo obversatur (cf. sect. III, s. v. oculi)
    • (ambiguous) innate ideas: notiones animo (menti) insitae, innatae
    • (ambiguous) to form a conception, notion of a thing: notionem or rationem alicuius rei in animo informare or animo concipere
    • (ambiguous) to have formed an ideal notion of a thing: comprehensam quandam animo speciem (alicuius rei) habere
    • (ambiguous) to conceive an ideal: singularem quandam perfectionis imaginem animo concipere
    • (ambiguous) to be imbibing false opinions: opiniones falsas animo imbibere
    • (ambiguous) to get a mistaken notion into the mind: errorem animo imbibere
    • (ambiguous) to relieve a man of his scruple: scrupulum ex animo alicuius evellere (Rosc. Am. 2. 6)
    • (ambiguous) to think over, consider a thing: secum (cum animo) reputare aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to think over, consider a thing: considerare in, cum animo, secum aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to think over, consider a thing: agitare (in) mente or (in) animo aliquid
    • (ambiguous) I am resolved; it is my intention: in animo habeo or mihi est in animo c. Inf.
    • (ambiguous) to think of a person with a grateful sense of his goodness: nomen alicuius grato animo prosequi
    • (ambiguous) the memory of this will never fade from my mind: numquam ex animo meo memoria illius rei discedet
    • (ambiguous) a thing escapes, vanishes from the memory: aliquid excidit e memoria, effluit, excidit ex animo
    • (ambiguous) a thing is deeply impressed on the mind: aliquid in animo haeret, penitus insedit or infixum est
    • (ambiguous) to impress a thing on one's memory, mind: aliquid animo mentique penitus mandare (Catil. 1. 11. 27)
    • (ambiguous) to be humorously inclined: animo prompto esse ad iocandum
    • (ambiguous) to weary, bore the reader: languorem, molestiam legentium animis afferre
    • (ambiguous) to be so disposed: ita animo affectum esse
    • (ambiguous) to excite emotion: motus excitare in animo (opp. sedare, exstinguere)
    • (ambiguous) grief has struck deep into his soul: dolor infixus animo haeret (Phil. 2. 26)
    • (ambiguous) to enjoy peace of mind: quieto, tranquillo, securo animo esse
    • (ambiguous) to be very uneasy; to fret: (animo) angi (Brut. 27)
    • (ambiguous) to be brave, courageous: bono animo esse
    • (ambiguous) to be brave by nature: animo forti esse
    • (ambiguous) to show a brisk and cheerful spirit: alacri et erecto animo esse
    • (ambiguous) to lose courage; to despair: animo cadere, deficere
    • (ambiguous) to be cast down, discouraged, in despair: animo esse humili, demisso (more strongly animo esse fracto, perculso et abiecto) (Att. 3. 2)
    • (ambiguous) to possess presence of mind: praesenti animo uti (vid. sect. VI. 8, note uti...)
    • (ambiguous) to endure a thing with (the greatest) sang-froid: aequo (aequissimo) animo ferre aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to be resigned to a thing: (animo) paratum esse ad aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to lose one's composure; to be disconcerted: perturbari (animo)
    • (ambiguous) to be quite unconcerned: animo adesse (Sull. 11. 33)
    • (ambiguous) to conceive a hope: spem concipere animo
    • (ambiguous) to be waiting in suspense for..: suspenso animo exspectare aliquid
    • (ambiguous) to stifle, repress all humane sentiments in one's mind: omnem humanitatem ex animo exstirpare (Amic. 13. 48)
    • (ambiguous) to love deeply: aliquem ex animo or ex animi sententia amare (Q. Fr. 1. 1. 5)
    • (ambiguous) to banish love from one's mind: amorem ex animo eicere
    • (ambiguous) to banish all feeling of prejudice from the mind: suspicionem ex animo delere
    • (ambiguous) he is in a suspicious mood: suspicio insidet in animo ejus
    • (ambiguous) my mind forebodes misfortune: animo praesagio malum
    • (ambiguous) something is contrary to my moral sense, goes against my principles: aliquid abhorret a meis moribus (opp. insitum [atque innatum] est animo or in animo alicuius)
    • (ambiguous) to be inconsistent, changeable: animo mobili esse (Fam. 5. 2. 10)
    • (ambiguous) to banish devout sentiment from the minds of others: religionem ex animis extrahere (N. D. 1. 43. 121)
    • (ambiguous) belief in God is part of every one's nature: omnibus innatum est et in animo quasi insculptum esse deum
    • (ambiguous) Nature has implanted in all men the idea of a God: natura in omnium animis notionem dei impressit (N. D. 1. 16. 43)
    • (ambiguous) to devote oneself body and soul to the good of the state: totum et animo et corpore in salutem rei publicae se conferre
    • (ambiguous) to consider oneself already victor: victoriam praecipere (animo) (Liv. 10. 26)
  • animus in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016
  • DIZIONARIO LATINO OLIVETTI

PortugueseEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Latin animus (the soul, thoughts, intellect, ideas, will, thoughts, courage, etc.; the breath, life), closely related to anima (air, breath, spirit, life force). From Proto-Italic *anamos, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂enh₁mos, from *h₂enh₁- (to breathe). Doublet of ânimo.

NounEdit

animus m (uncountable)

  1. (Jungian psychology) animus (the masculine aspect of the feminine psyche or personality)

Related termsEdit