Open main menu

Wiktionary β

TranslingualEdit

Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:
Shinjitai
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative formsEdit

In Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese scripts, the right side component is written (contains with 2 dots). In Japanese shinjitai, the component is simplified to (contains with a single middle stroke). Due to Han unification, both characters (/) are encoded under the same Unicode codepoint. A CJK compatibility ideograph (U+FA44) exists for the kyūjitai form of .

Han characterEdit

(radical 75 +7 in Chinese, 木+6 in Japanese, in Chinese 11 strokes, in Japanese 10 strokes, cangjie input 木人田卜 (DOWY), four-corner 48957, composition(GHTKV) or ⿰(J))

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 528, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14795
  • Dae Jaweon: page 916, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1215, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+6885

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
梅姓

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*mɯːs, *mɯː, *mɯːs
*mlɯːʔ, *mɯːʔ
*hmlɯːʔ
*ʔmɯː, *ʔmɯːʔ
*mɯ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ, *mɯs, *maːʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯs, *mɯːʔ, *mɯːs
*mɯs, *mɯː, *mɯːs
*mrɯʔ, *mrɯŋʔ
*mrɯŋʔ
*mrɯŋʔ
*ma
*mɯː
*mɯː
*mɯː
*mɯːʔ
*mɯːs
*mɯːs, *hmɯːs
*hmɯːs
*hmɯːs
*hmɯːʔ, *hmɯːs
*mrɯl

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *mɯː): semantic  (tree) + phonetic  (OC *mɯːʔ).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou:
    • m̂ - vernacular;
    • mûi/bôe - literary.
  • mainstream Taiwan:
    • môe/m̂ - vernacular;
    • mûi - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /mei³⁵/
Harbin /mei²⁴/
Tianjin /mei⁴⁵/
Jinan /mei⁴²/
Qingdao /me⁴²/
Zhengzhou /mei⁴²/
Xi'an /mei²⁴/
Xining /mɨ²⁴/
Yinchuan /mei⁵³/
Lanzhou /mei⁵³/
Ürümqi /mei⁵¹/
Wuhan /mei²¹³/
Chengdu /mei³¹/
Guiyang /mei²¹/
Kunming /mei³¹/
Nanjing /məi²⁴/
Hefei /me⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /mei¹¹/
Pingyao /mæ¹³/
Hohhot /mei³¹/
Wu Shanghai /me²³/
Suzhou /me̞¹³/
Hangzhou /mei²¹³/
Wenzhou /mai³¹/
Hui Shexian /mɛ⁴⁴/
Tunxi /mə⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /mei¹³/
Xiangtan /məi¹²/
Gan Nanchang /mi⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /moi¹¹/
Taoyuan /moi¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /mui²¹/
Nanning /mui²¹/
Hong Kong /mui²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /mui³⁵/
/m³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /muoi⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /mo³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /bue⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /vue³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (42)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/muʌi/
Pan
Wuyun
/muoi/
Shao
Rongfen
/muɒi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/mwəj/
Li
Rong
/muᴀi/
Wang
Li
/muɒi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/muɑ̆i/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
méi
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
méi
Middle
Chinese
‹ mwoj ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.mˤə/
English plum tree

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9302
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mɯː/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Chinese plum
  2. Alternative name for (nán, “Machilus nanmu”).
    終南 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    终南 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: The Classic of Poetry, circa 11th – 7th centuries BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
    Zhōngnán hé yǒu? Yǒu tiáo yǒu méi. [Pinyin]
    (please add an English translation of this example)
  3. Short for 楊梅杨梅 (yángméi).
  4. Short for 梅雨 (méiyǔ).
  5. Short for 梅州 (Méizhōu).
  6. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

 

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Kanji in this term
うめ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

/muəi/⟨me2 → */mme/⟨mume2⟨ume2/ume/

From Old Japanese.[1][2][3] Found already in the Man'yōshū with the ume reading, completed some time after 759 CE.[4]

Probably ultimately from Middle Chinese (MC muʌi),[2][3] with the borrowed /me/ reading gaining a pronounced kind of initial /m/ sound, perhaps realized as /mme/. The phonetic spelling was often rendered as むめ (/mme/ or /mume/) from the Heian period,[1][3] with mme / mume and ume apparently existing in free variation. The reading eventually settled on うめ (/ume/). Compare the similar pattern of phonetic shift for (ma → *mma → muma → uma, horse), from Middle Chinese (MC mˠaX).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana うめ, katakana ウメ, rōmaji ume)

  1. a Japanese plum or Japanese apricot, Prunus mume
  2. the lowest of a three-level rank system
  3. a style of 家紋 (kamon, family crest), in the form of plum blossoms
  4. short for 梅襲 (ume-gasane)
Usage notesEdit

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as ウメ.

Derived termsEdit
ProverbsEdit
Coordinate termsEdit
See alsoEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana うめ, rōmaji Ume)

  1. a female given name

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
むめ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

/muəi/⟨me2 → */mme/⟨mume2/mume/

From Old Japanese.[1][2][3] This reading becomes common during the Heian period,[1][3] later falling into disuse. Superseded by the ume reading above.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana むめ, rōmaji mume)

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) a Japanese plum or Japanese apricot, Prunus mume

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0
  4. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 822), text here
  5. ^ Paula Doe; Yakamochi Ōtomo (1982) A Warbler's Song in the Dusk: The Life and Work of Ōtomo Yakamochi (718-785), illustrated edition, University of California Press, ISBN 0-5200-4346-4, page 32
  6. ^ Sugawara no Takasue no Musume; Sonja Arntzen; Moriyuki Ito (2014) The Sarashina Diary: A Woman's Life in Eleventh-Century Japan (Translations from the Asian Classics), illustrated, reprint edition, Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-2315-3745-X, page 111
  7. ^ Edwin A. Cranston (1993) A Waka Anthology: Grasses of remembrance, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-8047-4825-X, page 138

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(mae) (hangeul , revised mae, McCune-Reischauer mae, Yale may)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(mai)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

CompoundsEdit

AdjectiveEdit