See also: and
U+6885, 梅
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6885

[U+6884]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6886]

U+FA44, 梅
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-FA44

[U+FA43]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+FA45]

梅 U+2F8E2, 梅
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-2F8E2
桒
[U+2F8E1]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs Supplement 𣑭
[U+2F8E3]

Translingual

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Commons:Category
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Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative forms

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In Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese scripts, the right side component is written (contains with 2 dots). In Japanese shinjitai, the component is simplified to (contains with a single middle stroke). Due to Han unification, both characters (/) are encoded under the same Unicode codepoint. A CJK compatibility ideograph (U+FA44) exists for the kyūjitai form of .

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 75, +7 in Chinese, 木+6 in Japanese, 11 strokes in Chinese, 10 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 木人田卜 (DOWY), four-corner 48957, composition (GHTKV) or (J))

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 528, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14795
  • Dae Jaweon: page 916, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1215, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+6885

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph origin

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Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *mɯː) : semantic (tree) + phonetic (OC *mɯːʔ).

Etymology

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Seemingly related to Old Japanese (ume2) (Shibatani, 1990; Miyake, 1997; apud Schuessler, 2007) (which was possibly borrowed from Middle Chinese). Its origin is unknown (Schuessler, 2007); its referent, Prunus mume, originated around the Yangtze River,[1] now in south China yet initially outside the Chinese civilization's cradle in the Central Plain.

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou:
    • m̂ - vernacular;
    • mûi/bôe - literary.
  • mainstream Taiwan:
    • môe/m̂ - vernacular;
    • mûi - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /mei³⁵/
Harbin /mei²⁴/
Tianjin /mei⁴⁵/
Jinan /mei⁴²/
Qingdao /me⁴²/
Zhengzhou /mei⁴²/
Xi'an /mei²⁴/
Xining /mɨ²⁴/
Yinchuan /mei⁵³/
Lanzhou /mei⁵³/
Ürümqi /mei⁵¹/
Wuhan /mei²¹³/
Chengdu /mei³¹/
Guiyang /mei²¹/
Kunming /mei³¹/
Nanjing /məi²⁴/
Hefei /me⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /mei¹¹/
Pingyao /mæ¹³/
Hohhot /mei³¹/
Wu Shanghai /me²³/
Suzhou /me̞¹³/
Hangzhou /mei²¹³/
Wenzhou /mai³¹/
Hui Shexian /mɛ⁴⁴/
Tunxi /mə⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /mei¹³/
Xiangtan /məi¹²/
Gan Nanchang /mi⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /moi¹¹/
Taoyuan /moi¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /mui²¹/
Nanning /mui²¹/
Hong Kong /mui²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /mui³⁵/
/m³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /muoi⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /mo³³/
Shantou (Teochew) /bue⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /vue³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (42)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter mwoj
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/muʌi/
Pan
Wuyun
/muoi/
Shao
Rongfen
/muɒi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/mwəj/
Li
Rong
/muᴀi/
Wang
Li
/muɒi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/muɑ̆i/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
méi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
mui4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
méi
Middle
Chinese
‹ mwoj ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.mˁə/
English plum tree

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9302
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mɯː/

Definitions

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  1. Prunus mume (Chinese plum or Japanese apricot)
      ―  huàméi  ―  li hing mui
      ―  méi  ―  smoked plum
  2. (in compounds) A plant sharing similarities with Prunus mume in habit, flowers or fruits
      ―  méi  ―  Chimonanthus praecox
      ―  cháméi  ―  Camellia sasanqua
      ―  yángméi  ―  Myrica rubra
    西  ―  méi  ―  Prunus domestica
  3. (obsolete) Alternative name for (nán, “Machilus nanmu”).
  4. Short for 梅雨 (méiyǔ).
  5. Short for 梅州 (Méizhōu).
  6. a surname
    光達 [Cantonese, trad.]
    光达 [Cantonese, simp.]
    mui4 gwong1 daat6 [Jyutping]
    Mei Quong Tart (merchant)
    艷芳 [Cantonese, trad.]
    艳芳 [Cantonese, simp.]
    mui4 jim6 fong1 [Jyutping]
    Anita Mui (singer)

Descendants

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  • Malay: boi
Sino-Xenic ():

Others:

Compounds

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References

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  1. ^ Uematsu, Chiyomi, Sasakuma, Tetsuo, Ogihara, Yasunari (1991) “Phylogenetic relationships in the stone fruit group of Prunus as revealed by restriction fragment analysis of chloroplast DNA”, in The Japanese Journal of Genetics, volume 66, number 1, →DOI, [https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1676591 ���PMID], page 60:P. mume had its origin in South China around the Yangtze River (Kyotani, 1989b).

Japanese

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Shinjitai  
Kyūjitai
[1][2][3][4]


&#xFA44;
or
+&#xFE00;?
 
梅󠄀
+&#xE0100;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
梅󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji

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(Fourth grade kyōiku kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
うめ
Grade: 4
kun'yomi
Alternative spellings
(kyūjitai)
 
(ume): Japanese plum trees and white plum blossoms of Hirohashi Bairin in Shimoichi, Nara
 
(ume): a generic plum blossom crest
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

⟨me2 → */mːəɨ/ → *⟨mume2⟨ume2 → */uməɨ//ume/

From Old Japanese.[5][6][7]

Probably ultimately from Middle Chinese (MC mwoj),[6][7] with the borrowed me reading gaining a pronounced kind of initial m- sound, perhaps realized as *mme. The phonetic spelling was often rendered as むめ (*mme, mume) from the Heian period,[5][7] with *mme/mume and ume apparently existing in free variation. The reading eventually settled on うめ (ume). Compare the similar pattern of phonetic shift for (ma → *mma → muma → uma, horse), likely from Middle Chinese (MC maeX).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(うめ) or (ウメ) (ume

  1. Japanese plum or apricot, Prunus mume
  2. a white plum blossom, as opposed to 紅梅 (kōbai, red plum blossom)
    Synonym: 白梅 (hakubai)
  3. the lowest of a three-level rank system
    Hypernym: 松竹梅
    Coordinate terms: , ,
  4. a 家紋 (kamon, family crest) with varying designs of plum blossoms
  5. Short for 梅襲 (ume-gasane): a style of layering garments with dark crimson over light crimson
  6. (card games) the suit of plum blossoms in 花札 (hanafuda), representing the month of February
    Coordinate terms: , , , , 菖蒲, 牡丹, , , , 紅葉, ,
  7. (historical, colloquial) Synonym of 天神 (tenjin): the second-highest ranked prostitute in Edo-period Kamigata, below the 大夫 (tayū)
Usage notes
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  • As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts (where katakana is customary), as ウメ.
Quotations
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For quotations using this term, see Citations:梅.

Derived terms
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Proverbs
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Descendants
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See also
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Proper noun

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(うめ) (Ume

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
むめ
Grade: 4
irregular
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

⟨me2 → */mːəɨ/ → *⟨mume2/mume/

Possibly from Old Japanese.

This reading becomes common during the Heian period,[5][7] later falling into disuse.

Superseded by the ume reading above.

Noun

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(むめ) (mume

  1. (archaic, obsolete) the Japanese plum or apricot, Prunus mume
Quotations
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For quotations using this term, see Citations:梅.

Derived terms
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Descendants
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  • Translingual: mume

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
ばい
Grade: 4
kan'on
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

From a later borrowing of Middle Chinese (MC mwoj).

Noun

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(ばい) (bai

  1. (usually in Chinese contexts) the Japanese plum or apricot, Prunus mume
  2. (historical, colloquial) Synonym of 天神 (tenjin): the second-highest ranked prostitute in Edo-period Kamigata, below the 大夫 (tayū)

Affix

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(ばい) (bai

  1. plum
  2. Short for 梅雨 (baiu): East Asian rainy season
  3. Short for 梅毒 (baidoku): syphilis
Derived terms
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Proper noun

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(ばい) (Bai

  1. a surname

References

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  1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア [Kanjipedia]‎[1] (in Japanese), The Japan Kanji Aptitude Testing Foundation, 2015–2024
  2. ^ 白川静 (Shirakawa Shizuka) (2014) “”, in 字通 (Jitsū)[2] (in Japanese), popular edition, Tōkyō: Heibonsha, →ISBN
  3. ^ Haga, Gōtarō (1914) 漢和大辞書 [The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Fourth edition, Tōkyō: Kōbunsha, →DOI, page 1133 (paper), page 617 (digital)
  4. ^ Shōundō Henshūjo, editor (1927), 新漢和辞典 [The New Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Ōsaka: Shōundō, →DOI, page 685 (paper), page 355 (digital)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC mwoj). Recorded as Middle Korean ᄆᆡ (moy) (Yale: moy) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 매화나무 (maehwanamu mae))

  1. Hanja form? of (Prunus mume, a fruit tree).
  2. Hanja form? of (plum blossom, a blossom of this tree).
  3. Hanja form? of (a Korean surname).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

Old Japanese

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Etymology

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Possibly a shift from Middle Chinese (MC mwoj).[1][2]

Noun

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(ume2) (kana うめ)

  1. the Japanese plum or apricot, Prunus mume

Usage notes

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  • Also used phonetically as 借音 (shakuon) for ⟨me2.

Quotations

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For quotations using this term, see Citations:梅.

Descendants

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References

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  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: mai

  1. rattan

Compounds

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  • 梅花 (mai hoa, red avadavat; red munia; strawberry finch)