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TranslingualEdit

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Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative formsEdit

In Chinese, Korean and Vietnamese scripts, the right side component is written (contains with 2 dots). In Japanese shinjitai, the component is simplified to (contains with a single middle stroke). Due to Han unification, both characters (/) are encoded under the same Unicode codepoint. A CJK compatibility ideograph (U+FA44) exists for the kyūjitai form of .

Han characterEdit

(radical 75, +7 in Chinese, 木+6 in Japanese, 11 strokes in Chinese, 10 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 木人田卜 (DOWY), four-corner 48957, composition(GHTKV) or ⿰(J))

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 528, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14795
  • Dae Jaweon: page 916, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1215, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+6885

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
梅姓

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*mɯːs, *mɯː, *mɯːs
*mlɯːʔ, *mɯːʔ
*hmlɯːʔ
*ʔmɯː, *ʔmɯːʔ
*mɯ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ, *mɯs, *maːʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯʔ
*mɯs, *mɯːʔ, *mɯːs
*mɯs, *mɯː, *mɯːs
*mrɯʔ, *mrɯŋʔ
*mrɯŋʔ
*mrɯŋʔ
*ma
*mɯː
*mɯː
*mɯː
*mɯːʔ
*mɯːs
*mɯːs, *hmɯːs
*hmɯːs
*hmɯːs
*hmɯːʔ, *hmɯːs
*mrɯl

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *mɯː): semantic  (tree) + phonetic  (OC *mɯːʔ).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • Xiamen, Quanzhou, Zhangzhou:
    • m̂ - vernacular;
    • mûi/bôe - literary.
  • mainstream Taiwan:
    • môe/m̂ - vernacular;
    • mûi - literary.
  • (Teochew)

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /mei³⁵/
    Harbin /mei²⁴/
    Tianjin /mei⁴⁵/
    Jinan /mei⁴²/
    Qingdao /me⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /mei⁴²/
    Xi'an /mei²⁴/
    Xining /mɨ²⁴/
    Yinchuan /mei⁵³/
    Lanzhou /mei⁵³/
    Ürümqi /mei⁵¹/
    Wuhan /mei²¹³/
    Chengdu /mei³¹/
    Guiyang /mei²¹/
    Kunming /mei³¹/
    Nanjing /məi²⁴/
    Hefei /me⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /mei¹¹/
    Pingyao /mæ¹³/
    Hohhot /mei³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /me²³/
    Suzhou /me̞¹³/
    Hangzhou /mei²¹³/
    Wenzhou /mai³¹/
    Hui Shexian /mɛ⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /mə⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /mei¹³/
    Xiangtan /məi¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /mi⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /moi¹¹/
    Taoyuan /moi¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /mui²¹/
    Nanning /mui²¹/
    Hong Kong /mui²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /mui³⁵/
    /m³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /muoi⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /mo³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /bue⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /vue³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (42)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /muʌi/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /muoi/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /muɒi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /mwəj/
    Li
    Rong
    /muᴀi/
    Wang
    Li
    /muɒi/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /muɑ̆i/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    méi
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    méi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mwoj ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.mˤə/
    English plum tree

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9302
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mɯː/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Chinese plum
    2. Alternative name for (nán, “Machilus nanmu”).
      終南 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
      终南 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
      From: The Classic of Poetry, circa 11th – 7th centuries BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
      Zhōngnán hé yǒu? Yǒu tiáo yǒu méi. [Pinyin]
      (please add an English translation of this example)
    3. Short for 楊梅杨梅 (yángméi).
    4. Short for 梅雨 (méiyǔ).
    5. Short for 梅州 (Méizhōu).
    6. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

     

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
    Kanji in this term
    うめ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    /muəi/⟨me2 → */mme/⟨mume2⟨ume2/ume/

    From Old Japanese.[1][2][3] Found already in the Man'yōshū with the ume reading, completed some time after 759 CE.[4]

    Probably ultimately from Middle Chinese (MC muʌi),[2][3] with the borrowed /me/ reading gaining a pronounced kind of initial /m/ sound, perhaps realized as /mme/. The phonetic spelling was often rendered as むめ (/mme/ or /mume/) from the Heian period,[1][3] with mme / mume and ume apparently existing in free variation. The reading eventually settled on うめ (/ume/). Compare the similar pattern of phonetic shift for (ma → *mma → muma → uma, horse), from Middle Chinese (MC mˠaX).

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana うめ, katakana ウメ, rōmaji ume)

    1. a Japanese plum or Japanese apricot, Prunus mume
    2. the lowest of a three-level rank system
    3. a style of 家紋 (kamon, family crest), in the form of plum blossoms
    4. short for 梅襲 (ume-gasane)
    Usage notesEdit

    As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as ウメ.

    Derived termsEdit
    ProverbsEdit
    Coordinate termsEdit
    See alsoEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana うめ, rōmaji Ume)

    1. a female given name

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    むめ
    Grade: 4
    kun’yomi

    /muəi/⟨me2 → */mme/⟨mume2/mume/

    From Old Japanese.[1][2][3] This reading becomes common during the Heian period,[1][3] later falling into disuse. Superseded by the ume reading above.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana むめ, rōmaji mume)

    1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) a Japanese plum or Japanese apricot, Prunus mume

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    4. ^ c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 5, poem 822), text here
    5. ^ Paula Doe; Yakamochi Ōtomo (1982) A Warbler's Song in the Dusk: The Life and Work of Ōtomo Yakamochi (718-785), illustrated edition, University of California Press, →ISBN, page 32
    6. ^ Sugawara no Takasue no Musume; Sonja Arntzen; Moriyuki Ito (2014) The Sarashina Diary: A Woman's Life in Eleventh-Century Japan (Translations from the Asian Classics), illustrated, reprint edition, Columbia University Press, →ISBN, page 111
    7. ^ Edwin A. Cranston (1993) A Waka Anthology: Grasses of remembrance, Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 138

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (mae) (hangeul , revised mae, McCune–Reischauer mae, Yale may)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (mai)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    CompoundsEdit

    AdjectiveEdit