See also:
U+677E, 松
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-677E

[U+677D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+677F]

Translingual

edit
Stroke order
 

Han character

edit

(Kangxi radical 75, +4, 8 strokes, cangjie input 木金戈 (DCI), four-corner 48932, composition )

Derived characters

edit

References

edit
  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 514, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14516
  • Dae Jaweon: page 901, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1173, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+677E

Chinese

edit

Glyph origin

edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *sɢloŋ) : semantic (wood) + phonetic (OC *kloːŋ).

Etymology 1

edit
trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

ancient
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • (Cantonese)

Miyake (1997), apud Schuessler (2007), associated (OC *sɢloŋ) with Old Japanese (sugi2, cryptomeria); superficially similar to Thai สน (sǒn, pine).

The regular Mandarin pronunciation as predicted from Middle Chinese is sóng. The sound change to the yinping (陰平阴平) pronunciation in Mandarin dialects is to avoid homophony with the word 𪨊 (sóng, “semen”).

Pronunciation

edit

Note:
  • chêng/chhêng - vernacular (chêng is more common in Xiamen and Quanzhou);
  • siông - literary.
Note:
  • sêng5 - vernacular;
  • song5 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 松 (樹)
Mandarin Beijing /suŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /suŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /suŋ²¹/
Jinan /ɕyŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /səŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /syuŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /suŋ²¹/
Xining /suə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /suŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /sũn³¹/
Ürümqi /suŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /soŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /soŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /soŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /soŋ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /soŋ³¹/
Hefei /səŋ⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /suəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /suŋ¹³/
Hohhot /sũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /soŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /soŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /soŋ³³/
Wenzhou /jyɔ³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡sʰʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /t͡sʰan⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /soŋ³³/
/t͡soŋ¹³/
Xiangtan /sən³³/
Gan Nanchang /t͡ɕʰiuŋ²⁴/ ~毛
/suŋ⁴²/ ~香
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰiuŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /suŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰoŋ²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰuŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰuŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /siɔŋ³⁵/
/t͡siŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /syŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /t͡sœyŋ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /soŋ⁵⁵/
/seŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /toŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (17)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter zjowng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/zɨoŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/zioŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/zioŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/zuawŋ/
Li
Rong
/zioŋ/
Wang
Li
/zĭwoŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/zi̯woŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
sóng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cung4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
sōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ zjowng ›
Old
Chinese
/*sə.ɢoŋ/
English pine (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4115
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sɢloŋ/

Definitions

edit

  1. pine tree
  2. a surname, 216th in the Baijiaxing

Compounds

edit

Etymology 2

edit
For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“disheveled; unkempt; loose; etc.”).
(This character is the simplified form of ).
Notes:

References

edit

Japanese

edit
Shinjitai  
Kyūjitai
[1][2][3]

松󠄁
+&#xE0101;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
 
松󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji

edit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

edit

Alternative forms

edit

Compounds

edit

Etymology

edit
Kanji in this term
まつ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Attested in the Kojiki of 712 and the Man'yōshū of 759.[4][5] In turn, from Proto-Japonic *matu.

Various theories exist regarding its ultimate origin:[4]

  • Might be a shift from 保つ (tamotsu, to hold). However, the accent of 保つ (tamotsu) in the Heian period is HHL, while (matsu) is LH. It can be better derived from 持つ (motsu, to hold, to carry), which has LF accent in the Heian period.
  • Might be from 待つ (matsu, to wait), either from the way that a pine tree must wait for leaves to fall to grow new ones, or from the way that it lasts ten thousand years and preserves its color. The accent of 待つ (matsu) is LF.
  • Possibly derived from 全く (mataku, entirely), from 全い (matai, complete), because it spends its time in the snow for winter. However, the classical term 全し (matasi) is HHF in the Heian period.
  • From 睫毛 (matsuge, eyelashes), since their leaves represent such. However, it requires deletion of the -ge, and matsuge is certainly from (ma-, eye).
  • From 真常木 (matonoki, true eternal tree), as the pine tree is an evergreen tree.
  • From a place name 松のむらたち (MATSU no muratachi), as opposed to muratatsu.
  • From 芽厚 (meatsu, literally bud (that feels) hot).
  • From 纏わる (matsuwaru, get wrapped around), as the leaves are around the trunk.
  • From (ma-, true) + (tsu, abbreviation of 約まる (tsuzumaru, to shrink)).
  • From 間千 (machi, literally space (of) thousands).
  • A shift from (mata, crouch), as the pine tree leaves split into two.

Pronunciation

edit

Noun

edit

(まつ) (matsuまつ (matu)?

  1. a pine tree
  2. a pine branch decorated for the celebration of New Year
  3. the highest rank of a 3-tier ranking system
    Hypernym: 松竹梅
    Coordinate terms: , ,
  4. a 家紋 (crest) in the shape of pine branches or needles
  5. (card games) a suit in 花札 (hanafuda), representing the month of January
    Coordinate terms: , , , , 菖蒲, 牡丹, , , , 紅葉, ,
  6. (historical) Synonym of 松明 (taimastu, torch made of a pine branch)
  7. (nyōbo kotoba) Synonym of 松茸 (matsutake mushroom)

Derived terms

edit

Proper noun

edit

(まつ) (Matsu

  1. a surname

References

edit
  1. ^ 白川静 (Shirakawa Shizuka) (2014) “”, in 字通 (Jitsū)[1] (in Japanese), popular edition, Tōkyō: Heibonsha, →ISBN
  2. ^ Haga, Gōtarō (1914) 漢和大辞書 [The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Fourth edition, Tōkyō: Kōbunsha, →DOI, page 1112 (paper), page 607 (digital)
  3. ^ Shōundō Henshūjo, editor (1927), 新漢和辞典 [The New Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Ōsaka: Shōundō, →DOI, page 669 (paper), page 347 (digital)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 まつ 【松】”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)  [2] (in Japanese), 2nd edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000, released online 2007, →ISBN, concise edition entry available here (Note: Dialectal meanings, etymological theories, pronunciation including modern, dialectal, and historical information, Jōdai Tokushu Kanazukai, historical dictionaries containing this word, and the kanji spellings in those dictionaries have been omitted.)
  5. ^ Omodaka, Hisataka (1967) 時代別国語大辞典 上代編 [The dictionary of historical Japanese: Old Japanese] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN, page 681
  6. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  7. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  8. ^ Yamada, Tadao et al., editors (2011), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Seventh edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

edit

Hanja

edit

(eumhun 소나무 (sonamu song))

  1. pine

Vietnamese

edit

Han character

edit

: Hán Nôm readings: tùng, thông, tòng

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Zhuang

edit

Numeral

edit

  1. Sawndip form of song