See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 9 +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 人戈弓戈 (OINI), four-corner 80307, composition (G) or ⿱ (TV) or ⿱𠃌 (JK))

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 93, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 387
  • Dae Jaweon: page 198, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 111, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4EE4

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script Small seal script





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  + .

Pronunciation 1Edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /liŋ⁵¹/
Harbin /liŋ⁵³/
Tianjin /liŋ⁵³/
Jinan /liŋ²¹/
Qingdao /liŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /liŋ³¹²/
Xi'an /liŋ⁴⁴/
Xining /liə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /liŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /lĩn¹³/
Ürümqi /liŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /nin³⁵/
Chengdu /nin¹³/
Guiyang /nin²¹³/
Kunming /lĩ¹/
Nanjing /lin⁴⁴/
Hefei /lin⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /liəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /liŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /lĩŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /liŋ²³/
Suzhou /lin³¹/
Hangzhou /lin¹³/
Wenzhou /leŋ²²/
Hui Shexian /liʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /lɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /lin⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /nin⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /lin²¹/
Hakka Meixian /lin⁵³/
Taoyuan /lin⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /leŋ²²/
Nanning /leŋ²²/
Hong Kong /liŋ²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /lɛiŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /leiŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /leŋ³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /leŋ³³/ 使~(俗)

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/5 4/5 5/5
Initial () (37) (37) (37)
Final () (121) (121) (125)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () III III IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/liᴇŋ/ /liᴇŋH/ /leŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/liɛŋ/ /liɛŋH/ /leŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/liæŋ/ /liæŋH/ /lɛŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/liajŋ/ /liajŋH/ /lɛjŋH/
Li
Rong
/liɛŋ/ /liɛŋH/ /leŋH/
Wang
Li
/lĭɛŋ/ /lĭɛŋH/ /lieŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯ɛŋ/ /li̯ɛŋH/ /lieŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
líng lìng lìng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
líng lìng
Middle
Chinese
‹ ljeng › ‹ ljengH ›
Old
Chinese
/*riŋ/ /*riŋ-s/
English send (a person) issue a command

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/5 3/5 5/5
No. 8277 8284 8332
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*reŋ/ /*reŋs/ /*reːŋs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to order; to command
  2. to make (someone do something); to cause; to allow
    Synonyms: (ràng)
      ―  lìngrén  ―  to make someone (do something); to make people [+ adjective]
  3. (historical) governor; magistrate (official title)
  4. good; excellent
  5. time; season
  6. drinking game
  7. (respectful) your
  8. (poem) Short for 小令 (“ditty”).
  9. A surname​.

Pronunciation 2Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 3/5
Initial () (37)
Final () (125)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/leŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/leŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/lɛŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lɛjŋ/
Li
Rong
/leŋ/
Wang
Li
/lieŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lieŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
líng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
líng
Middle
Chinese
‹ leng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]ˤiŋ/
English 脊令 tsjek.leng (a kind of water bird)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 4/5
No. 8306
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*reːŋ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in 令狐 (Lìnghú).
  2. Only used in 令利.
  3. Only used in 令俜.
  4. Only used in 令星.
  5. Only used in 脊令.
  6. Original form of .

Pronunciation 3Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. Classifier for reams of paper.

Pronunciation 4Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/5
Initial () (37)
Final () (77)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/liᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/liɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ljæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lian/
Li
Rong
/liɛn/
Wang
Li
/lĭɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯ɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lián
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/5
No. 8271
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ren/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in 令居 (“ancient county in modern Gansu”).

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Kanji in this term
れい
Grade: 4
on'yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana れい, romaji rei)

  1. order, command

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(ryeong) (hangeul , revised ryeong, McCune-Reischauer ryŏng, Yale ryeng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(lệnh, lanh, lành, lênh, lình, liệng, lịnh, loanh)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

ReferencesEdit

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