See also: and
U+4EE4, 令
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EE4

[U+4EE3]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EE5]
U+F9A8, 令
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9A8

[U+F9A7]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9A9]

Translingual

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Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 9, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 人戈弓戈 (OINI), four-corner 80307, composition (G) or (HTV) or 𰆊(JK))

Derived characters

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Stroke order
Traditional or simplified
 
Japanese or Korean
 

References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 93, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 387
  • Dae Jaweon: page 198, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 111, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4EE4

Chinese

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trad.
simp. #

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
                 



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : + .

Etymology 1

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Usually thought to be related to (OC *mreŋs, “order”) (Schuessler, 2007). As a surname, 令 has many origins, one of them is 令狐 (Línghú).

Pronunciation

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  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /liŋ⁵¹/
Harbin /liŋ⁵³/
Tianjin /liŋ⁵³/
Jinan /liŋ²¹/
Qingdao /liŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /liŋ³¹²/
Xi'an /liŋ⁴⁴/
Xining /liə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /liŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /lĩn¹³/
Ürümqi /liŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /nin³⁵/
Chengdu /nin¹³/
Guiyang /nin²¹³/
Kunming /lĩ¹/
Nanjing /lin⁴⁴/
Hefei /lin⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /liəŋ⁴⁵/
Pingyao /liŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /lĩŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /liŋ²³/
Suzhou /lin³¹/
Hangzhou /lin¹³/
Wenzhou /leŋ²²/
Hui Shexian /liʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /lɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /lin⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /nin⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /lin²¹/
Hakka Meixian /lin⁵³/
Taoyuan /lin⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /leŋ²²/
Nanning /leŋ²²/
Hong Kong /liŋ²²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /liŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /lɛiŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /leiŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /leŋ³⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /leŋ³³/ 使~(俗)

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/5 4/5 5/5
Initial () (37) (37) (37)
Final () (121) (121) (125)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () III III IV
Fanqie
Baxter ljeng ljengH lengH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/liᴇŋ/ /liᴇŋH/ /leŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/liɛŋ/ /liɛŋH/ /leŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/liæŋ/ /liæŋH/ /lɛŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/liajŋ/ /liajŋH/ /lɛjŋH/
Li
Rong
/liɛŋ/ /liɛŋH/ /leŋH/
Wang
Li
/lĭɛŋ/ /lĭɛŋH/ /lieŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯ɛŋ/ /li̯ɛŋH/ /lieŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
líng lìng lìng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ling4 ling6 ling6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
líng lìng
Middle
Chinese
‹ ljeng › ‹ ljengH ›
Old
Chinese
/*riŋ/ /*riŋ-s/
English send (a person) issue a command

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/5 3/5 5/5
No. 8277 8284 8332
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*reŋ/ /*reŋs/ /*reːŋs/

Definitions

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  1. to order; to command
  2. order; command; directive
  3. to make (someone do something); to cause; to allow
      ―  lìngrén  ―  to make someone (do something); to make people [+ adjective]
  4. (historical) governor; magistrate (official title)
  5. (literary, or in compounds) good; excellent
  6. (literary, or in compounds) time; season
  7. (literary, or in compounds) drinker's wager game; drinking game
  8. (respectful) your
      ―  lìngzūn  ―  your father
      ―  lìng'ài  ―  your daughter
  9. (poetry) Short for 小令 (“ditty”).
  10. a surname
Synonyms
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  • (to order):
  • (order):
  • (to cause): 使 (shǐ), (ràng), (Cantonese) 令到 (ling6 dou3), 搞到 (gaau2 dou3)
  • (season):
  • (drinker's wager game): 酒令 (jiǔlìng)
Descendants
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Sino-Xenic ():

Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 3/5
Initial () (37)
Final () (125)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () IV
Fanqie
Baxter leng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/leŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/leŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/lɛŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lɛjŋ/
Li
Rong
/leŋ/
Wang
Li
/lieŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lieŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
líng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ling4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
líng
Middle
Chinese
‹ leng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]ˁiŋ/
English 脊令 tsjek.leng (a kind of water bird)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 4/5
No. 8306
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*reːŋ/

Definitions

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  1. Used in 令狐 (Línghú).
  2. Used in 令利.
  3. Used in 令俜.
  4. Used in 令星.
  5. Used in 脊令.
  6. Original form of (líng).

Etymology 3

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Borrowed from English ream.

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. Classifier for reams of paper.

Etymology 4

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Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/5
Initial () (37)
Final () (77)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ljen
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/liᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/liɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/ljæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lian/
Li
Rong
/liɛn/
Wang
Li
/lĭɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯ɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lián
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
lin4
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/5
No. 8271
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ren/

Definitions

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  1. Only used in 令居 (“ancient county in modern Gansu”).

Etymology 5

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“age; length of time; duration; etc.”).
(This character is the second-round simplified form of ).
Notes:

Compounds

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
れい
Grade: 4
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC ljeng), (MC ljengH), or (MC lengH).

The 漢音 (kan'on, literally Han sound) reading, so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(れい) (rei

  1. an order, command, decree
    Synonyms: 言い付け (iitsuke), 命令 (meirei)
  2. (historical) in ancient China, a regional governor or magistrate
  3. (historical) in the early Meiji period, the forerunner of a 知事 (chiji, prefectural governor)
  4. (historical) in the Kamakura period, the vice-minister of the 政所 (mandokoro, office of financial affairs)
  5. (historical) under the 律令 (Ritsuryō) system, This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    Synonym: 坊令 (bōrei)
  6. (rare, law, historical) an administrative and civil code developed during the Qin dynasty that was, alongside the (ritsu), spread throughout East Asia especially Japan where it was further revised into the 律令 (Ritsuryō) system

Affix

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(れい) (rei

  1. act, law, ordinance, rule
  2. law, ordinance, regulation
  3. (historical) high-ranking official or magistrate
  4. (obsolete) admonition, teaching
  5. (rare) beautiful, excellent, fine, good
  6. honorific prefix added before a term of kinship to show respect to someone else's relative
Derived terms
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Proper noun

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(れい) (Rei

  1. a female given name

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
りょう
Grade: 4
goon

/rjau//rjɔː//rjoː/

From Middle Chinese (MC ljeng), (MC ljengH), or (MC lengH).

The 呉音 (goon, literally Wu sound) reading, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(りょう) (ryōりやう (ryau)?

  1. (law, historical) an administrative and civil code developed during the Qin dynasty that was, alongside the (ritsu), spread throughout East Asia especially Japan where it was further revised into the 律令 (Ritsuryō) system
Derived terms
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Affix

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(りょう) (ryōりやう (ryau)?

  1. order, command, decree
  2. law, ordinance, rule

Proper noun

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(りょう) (Ryōりやう (ryau)?

  1. a female given name

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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“to cause; to order; etc.”

From Middle Chinese (MC ljeng).

Historical readings
“an order; a command”

From Middle Chinese (MC ljengH).

Historical readings

Pronunciation

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  • (initial position)
    • (an order; to cause; to order; etc.):
    • (in 영감 (令監, yeonggam)):
      • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [jɘ(ː)ŋ]
      • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
        • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.
  • (non-initial position)

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 하여금 (hayeogeum ryeong), word-initial (South Korea) 하여금 (hayeogeum yeong))

  1. Hanja form? of / (an order; a command).
  2. Hanja form? of / (to cause; to allow).
  3. Hanja form? of / (to order; to command).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: lệnh, linh, lanh, lành, lênh, lình, liệng, lịnh, loanh

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References

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