See also: and
U+5047, 假
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5047

[U+5046]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5048]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 9, +9, 11 strokes, cangjie input 人口卜水 (ORYE), four-corner 27247, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 110, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 835
  • Dae Jaweon: page 233, character 16
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 196, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5047

Chinese

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simp. and trad.
2nd round simp. 𬽥
alternative forms
“to borrow”

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   


References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kraːʔ, *kraːs) : semantic + phonetic (OC *kraːʔ).

Etymology

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“to borrow; false”
The sense evolved in the following manner: "to borrow" > "simulate" > "deception; false".
Cognate with Tibetan ཀར་སྐྱིན (kar skyin, loan; thing borrowed). An allofam is probably (OC *kʷaːs, *ɡʷaːʔ, “to hire”).

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • ké/kée - vernacular;
  • ká - literary.
Note:
  • gê2 - vernacular;
  • gia2 - literary.
    • (Leizhou)
      • Leizhou Pinyin: ge2 / gia3
      • Sinological IPA: /kɛ³¹/, /kia²¹/
Note:
  • ge2 - vernacular;
  • gia3 - literary.
Note:
  • 2ka - vernacular;
  • 2jia - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (98)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter kaeX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠaX/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚaX/
Shao
Rongfen
/kaX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaɨX/
Li
Rong
/kaX/
Wang
Li
/kaX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kaX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiǎ
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gaa2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
jiǎ jiǎ
Middle
Chinese
‹ X › ‹ X ›
Old
Chinese
/*Cə.kˁraʔ/ /*kˁraʔ/
English borrow; false great

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 5955
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kraːʔ/

Definitions

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  1. to lend; to borrow; to loan
    道伐虢  ―  jiǎdàofáguó  ―  to obtain safe passage to conquer the State of Guo
    以時日以时日  ―  jiǎyǐshírì  ―  as time goes by
  2. (archaic, historical, politics) acting
      ―  jiǎwáng  ―  Acting Prince
    丞相  ―  jiǎchéngxiàng  ―  Acting Chancellor
  3. to make use of
    思索  ―  jiǎsīsuǒ  ―  without hesitation
      ―  jiǎjiè  ―  to make use of; phonetic loan
  4. to disguise; to fake; to pretend
      ―  jiǎzhuāng  ―  to pretend
  5. forged; artificial; false
      ―  jiǎhuò  ―  counterfeit goods
    睫毛  ―  jiǎjiémáo  ―  false eyelash
    Antonym: (zhēn)
  6. falsehood; deception
      ―  zhēnjiǎ  ―  real and fake; authenticity
  7. if; assuming
      ―  jiǎshè  ―  to suppose
  8. a surname

Compounds

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Descendants

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  • Lingao: ke¹ (via Hainanese)

Pronunciation 2

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Note:
  • Xiamen, Quanzhou, Taiwan:
    • kè - vernacular;
    • kà - literary.
Note:
  • gê3 - vernacular;
  • gia2/gian2 - literary.
    • (Leizhou)
      • Leizhou Pinyin: ge3 / gia3
      • Sinological IPA: /kɛ²¹/, /kia²¹/
Note:
  • ge3 - vernacular;
  • gia3 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 假 (放)
Mandarin Beijing /t͡ɕia⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡ɕia⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕiɑ⁵³/
Jinan /t͡ɕia²¹/
Qingdao /t͡ɕia⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /t͡ɕia³¹²/
Xi'an /t͡ɕia⁴⁴/
Xining /t͡ɕia²¹³/
Yinchuan /t͡ɕia¹³/
Lanzhou /t͡ɕia¹³/
Ürümqi /t͡ɕia²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡ɕia⁴²/
Chengdu /t͡ɕia⁵³/
Guiyang /t͡ɕia²¹³/
Kunming /t͡ɕia̠²¹²/
Nanjing /t͡ɕiɑ⁴⁴/
Hefei /t͡ɕia²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡ɕia⁴⁵/
Pingyao /t͡ɕiɑ³⁵/
Hohhot /t͡ɕia⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ka³⁵/
Suzhou /t͡ɕiɑ⁵¹³/
/kɑ⁵¹³/
Hangzhou /t͡ɕiɑ⁴⁴⁵/
Wenzhou /ko⁴²/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕia³⁵/
Tunxi /kɔ³¹/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕia⁴¹/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕiɒ⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /kɑ²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ka³¹/
Taoyuan /kɑ³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ka³³/
Nanning /kʰa³³/
Hong Kong /ka³³/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /ka²¹/
/ke²¹/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /kɑ²¹²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /ka²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /kia⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /kɛ³⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (98)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter kaeH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kᵚaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kaɨH/
Li
Rong
/kaH/
Wang
Li
/kaH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kaH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jià
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gaa3
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 5961
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kraːs/

Definitions

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  1. vacation
      ―  bìngjià  ―  sick leave
      ―  jià  ―  holiday

Compounds

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Pronunciation 3

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Definitions

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  1. Same as ().

Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

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(Hyōgai kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. temporary
  2. interim
  3. assumed (name)
  4. informal

Readings

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  • On (unclassified): (ka); (ke)
  • Kun: かり (kari)

Korean

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Etymology 1

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From Middle Chinese (MC kaeX).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 (Yale: {{{2}}})
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Gwangju Cheonjamun, 1575 (Yale: {{{2}}}) (Yale: {{{2}}})
Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 (Yale: {{{2}}}) (Yale: {{{2}}})
Seokbong Cheonjamun, 1583 (Yale: {{{2}}}) (Yale: {{{2}}})

Pronunciation

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  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ka̠(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 거짓 (geojit ga))

  1. Hanja form? of (false, fake).
Compounds
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Etymology 2

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From Middle Chinese / (MC hae).

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (meol ha))

  1. (literary Chinese) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (afar; distant).)

Etymology 3

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From Middle Chinese / (MC kak|kaek).

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 이를 (ireul gyeok))

  1. (literary Chinese) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (to come; to arrive; to go to).)

References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Tày

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Adjective

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(transliteration needed)

  1. Nôm form of chá (fake).

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: giả[1][2][3], giá[1][2][4], hạ[4], [2]

  1. chữ Hán form of giả (false, fake).
  2. (only in compounds) chữ Hán form of giá, giả (if, assuming).

Compounds

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References

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