See also:
U+963F, 阿
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-963F

[U+963E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9640]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 170, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 弓中一弓口 (NLMNR), four-corner 71220, composition )

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

Further reading edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1348, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41599
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1850, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4119, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+963F

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Warring States
Bronze inscriptions
 

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *qaːl): semantic + phonetic (OC *kʰaːlʔ): Originally meaning a big mound.

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔa(ŋ/k)- (noun prefix) (STEDT).

“atto-”
Borrowed from English atto-.

Pronunciation edit


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • a - vernacular;
  • o - literary.
  • Wu
  • Note: 4aq - senses 1, 2, 3 only.

    Definitions edit

    1. Prefix used in front of the surname or last character of someone’s given name to express familiarity or friendliness (traditionally used in rural or southern Chinese dialects).
      alt. forms: dated, Hong Kong Cantonese neologism
        ―  ā  ―  dad
        ―  Ā Biǎn  ―  Ah Bian (Chen Shui-bian)
      Q正傳Q正传  ―  Āqiū Zhèngzhuàn”  ―  The True Story of Ah Q
    2. (Hokkien, honorific) Prefix to rank seniority for kinship terms.
      [Hokkien]  ―  a-hiaⁿ [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  eldest brother
    3. (Northern Wu, including Suzhounese) Interrogative particle
      [Suzhounese, trad.]
      [Suzhounese, simp.]
      From: 1993, 蘇州方言詞典, page 20
      Is your surname Chao?
    4. Alternative form of (ā, á, ǎ, à, a, particle)
    5. Short for 阿富汗 (Āfùhàn, “Afghanistan”).
    6. Short for 阿爾巴尼亞阿尔巴尼亚 (Ā'ěrbāníyà, “Albania”).
    7. Short for 阿拉伯 (Ālābó, “Arabic”).
    8. atto- (SI unit prefix)

    Compounds edit

    See also edit

    SI prefix
    Last Next
    (fēi) /

    Descendants edit

    • English: Ah

    Etymology 2 edit

    Pronunciation edit


    Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
    Note:
    • Quanzhou:
      • o - vernacular;
      • o͘ - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (94)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Baxter 'a
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔa/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ē
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    o1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    ē ē
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔa › ‹ ʔa ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qˁa[j]/ /*ʔˁa/ (< *qˁaj)
    English slope, river bank 阿會亘 ēhuìxuān: Skt. ābhāsvara “shining” (E. Hàn)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7468
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qaːl/

    Definitions edit

    1. big mound; mountain
    2. hillside
    3. fine silks
    4. (literary, of a mountain or stream) bend; corner
    5. waterside
    6. nearby; near
    7. to flatter; to pander to
      諛奉承谀奉承  ―  ēyúfèngchéng  ―  sweet-talking
    8. to be unfairly partial to
    9. Alternative form of (ē, to excrete)
    10. a surname

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    Readings edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Jinmeiyō
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC 'a).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    () (a

    1. The first letter of Sanskrit, (a).
    Derived terms edit
    See also edit

    Affix edit

    () (a

    1. to flatter; to pander to
    2. ridge (of roof); eaves
    3. A prefix expressing familiarity.
    4. Used as a phonetic element, especially in words from Sanskrit.
    5. Short for アフリカ (Afurika, Africa).
    6. Short for 阿波国 (Awa no kuni, Awa Province).
    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    くま
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    くま
    [noun] , , : corner, nook, recess
    [noun] , , : shade, shadow, dark area
    [noun] , , : dark circles under one's eyes. often clarified as 目の下のくま.
    Alternative spellings
    ,
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Korean edit

    Hanja edit

    (eumhun 언덕 (eondeok a))
    (eumhun 호칭 (hoching ok))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: a, á
    : Nôm readings: a, à

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References edit