See also:
U+4E9E, 亞
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E9E

[U+4E9D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E9F]

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han characterEdit

(radical 7, +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 一中中一 (MLLM), four-corner 10107)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 87, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 274
  • Dae Jaweon: page 183, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 23, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+4E9E

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
𠀓
𠄮

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形): an overhead view of a construction, likely a -shaped tomb.

Etymology 1Edit

Probably from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔrak (inferior; dependent), whence Tibetan རག (rag, to depend on; subject; subservient; dependent) (Bodman, 1980; Coblin, 1986).

Karlgren (1957) connects it to (OC *qaːɡ, “evil”), but Schuessler (2007) considers this to be unlikely due to the semantics.

The shangsheng pronunciation in Mandarin () is a result of influence from the pronunciation of (), whose written form contains as a component (Fu, 1958).

PronunciationEdit


Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • a, ah - vernacular;
  • à - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (34)
    Final () (98)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʔˠaH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʔᵚaH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʔaH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʔaɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʔaH/
    Wang
    Li
    /aH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʔaH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    aa3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ʔæH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ʔˁrak-s/
    English secondary

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14212
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qraːɡs/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. a house (four walls & windows, seen from above)
    2. second; inferior
      /   ―  jūn  ―  second place
      /   ―    ―  not inferior to
    3. Alternative form of ().
    4. A surname​.

    Etymology 2Edit

    PronunciationEdit


    Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (~洲) Short for 亞細亞亚细亚 (Yàxìyà, “Asia”).

    Etymology 3Edit

    PronunciationEdit


    Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (dated) Alternative form of (ā, “kinship prefix”).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. rank
    2. follow
    3. sub- prefix

    ReadingsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • New Nelson: 82
    • Halpern: 3563
    • Halpern Learners: not listed
    • Heisig: not listed
    • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 0a7.14
    1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.

    Usage notesEdit


    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʔˠaH).

    Historical readings

    PronunciationEdit

    • (phonetic element in transliterations):
    • (second; sub-; ranking next; etc.):
      • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [a̠(ː)]
      • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
        • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 버금 (beogeum a))

    1. Hanja form? of (second; sub-).
    2. Hanja form? of (ranking next; coming after).
    3. Hanja form? of (Asia (abbreviation)).
    4. Hanja form? of (used as a prefix to names).

    CompoundsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    Hanja in this term

    (A) (hangeul )

    1. (in headlines) Short for 亞細亞아세아 (Asea, Asia).

    Usage notesEdit

    A common convention in news headlines, this is almost always written solely in the Hanja form, even in contemporary Korean text otherwise devoid of any Hanja.

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: á, a

    1. Asia
    2. Asiatic

    ReferencesEdit