See also: and
U+4E9E, 亞
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E9E

[U+4E9D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E9F]

Translingual

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Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 7, +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 一中中一 (MLLM), four-corner 10107, composition ⿰⿳𠃑⿳𠃑一丨)

  1. Shuowen Jiezi radical №506

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 87, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 274
  • Dae Jaweon: page 183, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 23, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+4E9E

Chinese

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trad.
simp.
alternative forms
𠀓
𠄮
𱎫

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) : an overhead view of a construction, likely a -shaped tomb.

Etymology 1

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Probably from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔrak (inferior; dependent), whence Tibetan རག (rag, to depend on; subject; subservient; dependent) (Bodman, 1980; Coblin, 1986).

Karlgren (1957) connects it to (OC *qaːɡ, “evil”), but Schuessler (2007) considers this to be unlikely due to the semantics.

The shangsheng pronunciation in Mandarin () is a result of influence from the pronunciation of (), whose written form contains as a component (Fu, 1958).

Pronunciation

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Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.
Note:
  • a, ah - vernacular;
  • à - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (34)
Final () (98)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter 'aeH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʔˠaH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʔᵚaH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔaH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʔaɨH/
Li
Rong
/ʔaH/
Wang
Li
/aH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʔaH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
aa3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ʔæH ›
Old
Chinese
/*ʔˁrak-s/
English secondary

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 14212
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qraːɡs/

Definitions

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  1. a house (four walls & windows, seen from above)
  2. second; inferior
      ―  jūn  ―  second place
      ―    ―  not inferior to
  3. Alternative form of
  4. a surname

Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.

Definitions

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  1. (~洲) Short for 亞細亞亚细亚 (Yàxìyà, “Asia”).

Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (a)
  • Korean: 아(亞) (a)
  • Vietnamese: Á ()

Etymology 3

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Pronunciation

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Note: The zero initial /∅-/ is commonly pronounced with a ng-initial /ŋ-/ in some varieties of Cantonese, including Hong Kong Cantonese.

Definitions

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  1. (chiefly dialectal) Alternative form of (kinship prefix)

Etymology 4

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (Nanning Pinghua) this
    [Nanning Pinghua]  ―  aa3 gyun6 saam1 [Jyutping++]  ―  this shirt
Synonyms
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Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

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(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. rank
  2. follow
  3. sub- prefix

Readings

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Definitions

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
S
[kanji] Hyōgaiji kanji
[kanji] rank
[kanji] follow
[kanji] sub- prefix
[kanji] Used in transliteration of place names.
Kanji reading:
, あく, よう, , おう, つぐ, つぎ, [[<! つぐる#Japanese|<! つぐる]], [[> みつる#Japanese|> みつる]]
(This term, , is the kyūjitai of the above term.)

Usage notes

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Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC 'aeH).

Historical readings

Pronunciation

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  • (phonetic element in transliterations):
  • (second; sub-; ranking next; etc.):
    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [a̠(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 버금 (beogeum a))

  1. Hanja form? of (second; sub-).
  2. Hanja form? of (ranking next; coming after).
  3. Hanja form? of (Asia (abbreviation)).
  4. Hanja form? of (used as a prefix to names).

Compounds

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Proper noun

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Hanja in this term

(A) (hangeul )

  1. (in headlines) Short for 亞細亞아세아 (Asea, Asia).

Usage notes

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A common convention in news headlines, this is almost always written solely in the Hanja form, even in contemporary Korean text otherwise devoid of any Hanja.

References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: á, a

  1. Asia
  2. Asiatic

References

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