See also: fél, fêl, and fel-

Afrikaans edit

Etymology edit

From Dutch fel, from Middle Dutch fel, from Old French fel.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

fel (attributive fel, comparative feller, superlative felste)

  1. ferocious, fierce
  2. bright (e.g. sunlight)

Adverb edit

fel

  1. fiercely, ferociously

Catalan edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Vulgar Latin *felem m or f, from Latin fel n.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

fel m or f (plural fels)

  1. gall, bile
    Synonym: bilis
  2. (figurative) misery
  3. (figurative) rancor
    Synonym: rancúnia

Further reading edit

Cornish edit

Noun edit

fel

  1. Mixed mutation of mel.

Dutch edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Dutch fel, from Old French fel.

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /fɛl/
  • (file)
  • Hyphenation: fel
  • Rhymes: -ɛl

Adjective edit

fel (comparative feller, superlative felst)

  1. bright, shiny (e.g. sunlight)
  2. fierce, feisty, even bitter
  3. flashy, showy

Inflection edit

Inflection of fel
uninflected fel
inflected felle
comparative feller
positive comparative superlative
predicative/adverbial fel feller het felst
het felste
indefinite m./f. sing. felle fellere felste
n. sing. fel feller felste
plural felle fellere felste
definite felle fellere felste
partitive fels fellers

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Afrikaans: fel
  • Papiamentu: fel (dated)

Adverb edit

fel

  1. fiercely
    De Frisii waren een Germaans volk en net als verscheidene andere Germaanse volkeren wisten ze zich fel te verdedigen tegen de Romeinen[*] — The Frisii were a Germanic people and, just like various other Germanic peoples, they knew how to defend themselves fiercely against the Romans.

Descendants edit

Anagrams edit

Elfdalian edit

Etymology edit

Cognate with Swedish fuller.

Adverb edit

fel

  1. probably, likely

Fala edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

Inherited from Old Galician-Portuguese fazer, from Latin facere. Compare Portuguese fazer and Galician facer.

Alternative forms edit

Verb edit

fel

  1. (Lagarteiru, Mañegu) to do, make
Conjugation edit
Related terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese fel , from Vulgar Latin *felem.

Alternative forms edit

Noun edit

fel f (uncountable)

  1. (Mañegu, Valverdeñu) bile

References edit

  • Valeš, Miroslav (2021) Diccionariu de A Fala: lagarteiru, mañegu, valverdeñu (web)[1], 2nd edition, Minde, Portugal: CIDLeS, published 2022, →ISBN

Galician edit

Etymology edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese fel (13th century, Cantigas de Santa Maria), from Vulgar Latin *felem m or f, from Latin fel n.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

fel m (plural feles)

  1. gall; bile
    Synonym: bile
  2. (figuratively) meanness
    Synonym: amargura

Derived terms edit

References edit

  • fel” in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006–2022.
  • fel” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006–2013.
  • fel” in Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago: ILG.
  • fel” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.

Hungarian edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Uralic *pide.[1][2]

Pronunciation edit

Adverb edit

fel (comparative feljebb, superlative legfeljebb)

  1. up, upward, upwards (to a physically higher or more elevated position)
    Synonym: felfelé
    Antonyms: le, lefelé
    Coordinate terms: fent, fenn, (at a physically higher position) felül

Usage notes edit

This term may also be part of the split form of a verb prefixed with fel-, occurring when the main verb does not follow the prefix directly. It can be interpreted only with the related verb form, irrespective of its position in the sentence, e.g. meg tudták volna nézni (they could have seen it, from megnéz). For verbs with this prefix, see fel-; for an overview, Appendix:Hungarian verbal prefixes.

Derived terms edit

Expressions
See the compound word derivations below, at the noun sense.

Noun edit

fel (uncountable)

  1. (archaic) Alternative form of föl (upper part, surface)
    Synonyms: (upper part) felső rész, (surface) felület
  2. (rare, dialectal) Alternative form of föl (skim (of the milk)) or föl (cream; the best part)

Declension edit

Inflection of fel
singular plural
nominative fel
accusative felt
felet
dative felnek
instrumental fellel
causal-final felért
translative fellé
terminative felig
essive-formal felként
essive-modal
inessive felben
superessive felen
adessive felnél
illative felbe
sublative felre
allative felhez
elative felből
delative felről
ablative feltől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
felé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
feléi
Possessive forms of fel
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. felem
2nd person sing. feled
3rd person sing. fele
1st person plural felünk
2nd person plural feletek
3rd person plural felük

Derived terms edit

Adjective edit

fel

  1. (obsolete, only in compounds) upper, higher
    Synonyms: felső, feljebbi, fentebbi, fentebb/feljebb/magasabban lévő

Derived terms edit

Compound words

References edit

  1. ^ Entry #759 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics.
  2. ^ fel in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (‘Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)

Further reading edit

  • (up): fel in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • (skim, best part; rare, dialectal): fel , redirecting to standard (1): föl in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • (upper part): fel in Czuczor, Gergely and János Fogarasi: A magyar nyelv szótára (’A Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Pest: Emich Gusztáv Magyar Akadémiai Nyomdász, 1862–1874.

Latin edit

Etymology edit

Uncertain. Either from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃- (green), or from *bʰel-, *bʰl̥H- (yellow). *ǵʰ- > f- instead of the expected *h- is explained as being regular in some dialects.[1] Cognates through the first etymon include holus and helvus; Ancient Greek χολή (kholḗ, bile) and χλωρός (khlōrós, green); and English yellow and gold.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

fel n (genitive fellis); third declension

  1. gall bladder
  2. gall, bile
  3. poison
  4. bitterness, venom

Declension edit

Third-declension noun (neuter, i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative fel fella
Genitive fellis fellium
fellum
Dative fellī fellibus
Accusative fel fella
Ablative felle fellibus
Vocative fel fella

Descendants edit

  • Vulgar Latin: *felem m or f (see there for further descendants)

References edit

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), “fel”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 209
  • fel”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • fel in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.

Middle Dutch edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Old French fel.

Adjective edit

fel

  1. cruel, harsh
  2. evil
  3. terrible
  4. dangerous

Inflection edit

Adjective
Masculine Feminine Neuter Plural
Nominative Indefinite fel felle fel felle
Definite felle felle
Accusative Indefinite fellen felle fel felle
Definite felle
Genitive fels feller fels feller
Dative fellen feller fellen fellen

Descendants edit

Further reading edit

  • “fel (II)”, in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek[2], 2000
  • Verwijs, E.; Verdam, J. (1885–1929), “fel (I)”, in Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, →ISBN, page I

Middle English edit

Determiner edit

fel

  1. Alternative form of fele (many)

Adverb edit

fel

  1. Alternative form of fele (many)

Old French edit

Etymology edit

From Frankish *fel, from Proto-Germanic *faluz; cognate with felon.

Adjective edit

fel m (oblique and nominative feminine singular fele)

  1. evil
  2. vile; despicable

References edit

  • Godefroy, Frédéric, Dictionnaire de l’ancienne langue française et de tous ses dialectes du IXe au XVe siècle (1881) (1. fel)

Old Irish edit

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

fel

  1. Alternative form of fil

Mutation edit

Old Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Nasalization
fel ḟel fel
pronounced with /v(ʲ)-/
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Portuguese edit

Etymology edit

From Old Galician-Portuguese fel, from Vulgar Latin *felem m or f, from Latin fel n.

Pronunciation edit

 

  • Rhymes: (Portugal) -ɛl, (Brazil) -ɛw
  • Hyphenation: fel

Noun edit

fel m (plural féis or feles)

  1. sourness, acerbity, bitterness
    Synonym: azedume
  2. (figuratively) sorrow
    Synonym: amargura
  3. (medicine) gall; bile
    Synonyms: bile, bílis

Romanian edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from Hungarian -féle.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

fel n (plural feluri)

  1. sort, type, kind
    Synonyms: gen, tip
  2. manner, style, way
    În ce fel?In what way?
    În felul acesta.In this way.
    Nu e în felul lui să fie neprietenos.It’s unlike him to be unkind.
  3. course of a meal
    felul unufirst course
    felul doisecond course
    felul treidessert

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

References edit

Swedish edit

Etymology edit

See Norwegian feil and Danish fejl. Used in Swedish at least since 1527. For the adverb, the now obsolete form felt was the dominant written form until the mid 19th century.

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

fel (comparative mer fel, superlative mest fel)

  1. wrong, incorrect, erroneous
    Fel svar ger inga poäng
    A wrong answer gives no points
    Det är fel att döda
    Killing is wrong
    Vi gick fel väg
    We went the wrong way
    Vi gick på fel buss
    We got on the wrong bus

Declension edit

No inflected forms.

Antonyms edit

Adverb edit

fel (comparative mer fel, superlative mest fel)

  1. wrong, wrongly, incorrectly, erroneously
    Hon svarade fel på hälften av frågorna
    She answered wrong on half of the questions
    Planen slog fel
    The plan failed
    Det gick fel
    It went wrong

See also edit

Noun edit

fel n

  1. (uncountable) wrong (incorrectness or moral wrongness), (sometimes, by rephrasing) a mistake
    Antonym: rätt
    Jag erkänner, jag gjorde fel
    I admit, I made a mistake / I did wrong (can mean morally or otherwise)
    Han har fel
    He is wrong ("has wrong" – idiomatic)
  2. an error, a fault, a defect, a wrong
    Vi hittade flera fel i artikeln
    We found several errors in the article
    Det är något fel på datorn
    There is something wrong with the computer
    Två fel gör inte ett rätt
    Two wrongs don't make a right (idiomatic)

Declension edit

Declension of fel 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative fel felet fel felen
Genitive fels felets fels felens

Derived terms edit

This list includes words based on the adverb (felcitera (to cite erroneously)) as well as the noun (felsöka (to search for errors)).

References edit

Volapük edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

fel (nominative plural fels)

  1. field (general)

Declension edit

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

See also edit

Welsh edit

Etymology edit

Cognate with Breton evel, Cornish avel, Irish samhail, Latin similis. Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *sem- (together, one).[1]

Pronunciation edit

Preposition edit

fel

  1. as, like
    • Nursery rhyme:
      Gwyn fel yr eira / Du fel y frân / Pinc fel y rhosyn / Coch fel y tân / Llwyd fel y wiwer / Melyn fel yr haul / Glas fel yr awyr / Gwyrdd fel y dail. / Dyna rai o'r lliwiau, / y lliwiau yn Gymraeg.
      White like the snow / Black like the crow / Pink like the rose / Red like the fire / Grey like the squirrel / Yellow like the sun / Blue like the sky / Green like the leaves. / Those are some of the colours, / the colours in Welsh.

Related terms edit

Adverb edit

fel

  1. (South Wales, colloquial) how
    Synonyms: fel, ffordd
    Fel ’yt ti’n gwbod ’ny?How do you know that?

Related terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “fel”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies
  2. ^ Morris Jones, John (1913) A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative, Oxford: Clarendon Press, § 51 vi