Latin

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From quī +‎ -cumque. quīcunque is a later development reflecting the assimilated pronunciation.

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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quīcumque (feminine quaecumque, neuter quodcumque); relative/interrogative pronoun with an indeclinable portion

  1. whoever, whosoever; whatever, whatsoever
    • 43 BCE, Asinius Pollio, in Cicero, Epistulae ad Familiares 10.31.3:
      Ita si id agitur, ut rursus in potestate omnia unius sint, quicumque is est, ei me profiteor inimicum.
      If therefore events are so developing as to put all power again in the hands of one man, whosoever that man is, I declare myself his foe.
    • c. 40 BCE, Sallust, Bellum Iugurthinum 103:
      Eos ad Marium ac deinde, si placeat, Romam legatos ire iubet; agundarum rerum et quocumque modo belli componundi licentiam ipsis permittit.
      These he ordered to go as envoys to Marius and then, if it seemed advisable, to Rome, giving them complete freedom of action and permission to make peace in whatever manner.
    • c. 110 BCEc. 25 BCE, Cornelius Nepos, On the Eminent Commanders XIV. Datames 14.10:
      Namque is pollicitus est regi se eum interfecturum, si ei rex permitteret, ut, quodcumque vellet, liceret impune facere, fidemque de ea re more Persarum dextra dedisset.
      For he promised the king that he would kill him [Datames], if the king would allow him to do whatever he wanted with impunity and would give him a pledge to that effect with his right hand after the manner of the Persians.
    • 30 BCE – 16 BCE, Propertius, Elegies 4.1:
      Hoc quodcumque vides, hospes, qua maxima Roma est, / ante Phrygem Aenean collis et herba fuit
      This, stranger, whatsoever you see where Rome the greatest stands, / was hill and grass before Phrygian Aeneas
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Psalm 113:11 [115:3]:
      Deus autem noster in caelo, omnia quaecumque voluit fecit.
      But our God is in heaven, and whatsoever he has willed, he has done.

Usage notes

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  • quīcumque is used both adjectivally and substantivally.
  • Cato is cited with the archaic plural form quescumque (from ques).

Declension

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Relative/interrogative pronoun with an indeclinable portion.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative quīcumque quaecumque quodcumque quīcumque1 quaecumque
Genitive cuiuscumque1 quōrumcumque quārumcumque quōrumcumque
Dative cuicumque1 quibuscumque
quīscumque1
Accusative quemcumque quamcumque quodcumque quōscumque quāscumque quaecumque
Ablative quōcumque quācumque quōcumque quibuscumque
quīscumque1

1In Republican Latin or earlier, alternative spellings could be found for the following forms of quī/quis and its compounds: the masculine nominative singular or plural quī (old spelling quei), the genitive singular cuius (old spelling quoius), the dative singular cui (old spelling quoi or quoiei), the dative/ablative plural quīs (old spelling queis).

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Descendants

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  • English: quicumque vult, quicunque vult

References

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