Interlingua Edit

Etymology Edit

From Latin ipse.

Pronoun Edit


  1. himself; herself; itself

Latin Edit

Alternative forms Edit

Etymology Edit

Compounded from Proto-Indo-European *éy and *swé.

In Old Latin when both parts were inflected, a glide consonant p was inserted in the form *eum-sum, yielding eum-p-sum. From these accusative forms the stems -pso and -psā were extracted and adapted to the nominative forms, thus ipsus and eapsa. Ultimately the paradigm was assimilated to that of iste, ille, with only later in the history of Latin neuter ipsum becoming ipsud.[1]

Pronunciation Edit

Determiner Edit

ipse (feminine ipsa, neuter ipsum); demonstrative pronoun (pronominal)

  1. (emphatic) himself, herself, itself, the very, the actual
    • 43 BCEc. 17 CE, Ovid, Fasti 5.6:
      cōpiaque ipsa nocet
      and the very abundance [of choices] hurts
  2. specific reference to the chief, the leader, the one, etc., used to distinguish the principal person from the subordinates
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 1.113-115:
      Ūnam, quae Lyciōs fīdumque vehēbat Orontēn,
      ipsius ante oculōs, ingēns ā vertice pontus
      in puppim ferit [...].
      One [ship], which was carrying the faithful Orontes and [his] Lycians – [and it happened] before the eyes of [Aeneas] himself – a huge wave [descending] from high above smashes upon [its] stern [...].
      (See: Aeneas; Lycia, Lycians.)
  3. in person
  4. for one's part, for his part, for her part
  5. alone, by oneself, by one's own accord, of one's own nature
  6. just (with an adverb of time)
    nunc ipsumjust now; at this very time
    tum ipsumjust now; at that very time
  7. exactly, precisely, just (with a numeral or for contrast)

Declension Edit

Demonstrative pronoun (pronominal).

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative ipse ipsa ipsum ipsī ipsae ipsa
Genitive ipsī̆us ipsōrum ipsārum ipsōrum
Dative ipsī ipsīs
Accusative ipsum ipsam ipsum ipsōs ipsās ipsa
Ablative ipsō ipsā ipsō ipsīs

It follows the pronominal declension

  • In Medieval Latin the neuter form ipsud (instead of ipsum) appears.

Coordinate terms Edit

Derived terms Edit

Derived terms Edit

Descendants Edit

References Edit

  • ipse”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • ipse in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to penetrate into the heart of Greece: in ipsam or intimam Graeciam penetrare
    • (ambiguous) at the same moment that, precisely when: eo ipso tempore, cum; tum ipsum, cum
    • just at the critical moment: in ipso discrimine (articulo) temporis
    • extraneous causes: causae extrinsecus allatae (opp. in ipsa re positae)
    • at the critical moment: in ipso periculi discrimine
    • everyday experience tells us this: res ipsa, usus rerum (cotidie) docet
    • the very facts of the case show this: res ipsa docet
    • the matter speaks for itself: res ipsa (pro me apud te) loquitur
    • there is a flavour of Atticism about his discourse: ex illius orationibus ipsae Athenae redolent
    • this is as clear as daylight: hoc est luce (sole ipso) clarius
    • (ambiguous) at the same moment that, precisely when: eo ipso tempore, cum; tum ipsum, cum
    • (ambiguous) with this very object: ad id ipsum
    • (ambiguous) the circumstances are described in language worthy of them: rebus ipsis par est oratio
    • (ambiguous) to have self-control; to restrain oneself, master one's inclinations: sibi imperare or continere et coercere se ipsum
  • ipse in Ramminger, Johann (accessed 16 July 2016) Neulateinische Wortliste: Ein Wörterbuch des Lateinischen von Petrarca bis 1700[2], pre-publication website, 2005-2016
  1. ^ * Palmer, L.R. (1906) The Latin Language, London, Faber and Faber
  2. ^ Joan Veny (1986): "Els parlars catalans", ed Raixa, →ISBN
  3. ^ "The Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian Language (online version, ed. 2008)",