U+904E, 過
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-904E

[U+904D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+904F]
See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Shinjitai
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative formsEdit

Note that the box in the upper part of 咼 differs in simplified Chinese – in simplified Chinese fonts it is on the left, while in Japanese and traditional Chinese it is on the right.

Han characterEdit

(radical 162 +9, 13 strokes, cangjie input 卜月月口 (YBBR), four-corner 37302, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1261, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39002
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1753, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3849, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+904E

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*l'oːl
*ɡ·roːl, *kʷroːl
*kloːl, *kloːls
*kloːl, *qloːl
*kloːl
*kloːl, *ɡloːls
*kloːl
*koːl, *kroːl, *kʷroːl
*kloːl
*kloːl, *qloːl
*kloːlʔ, *kloːls
*kʰloːl
*kʰloːl, *kr'oːl
*ɡloːlʔ
*qloːl
*qloːl
*kr'oːl
*kr'oːl
*kroːl, *kʷroːl
*kroːl, *kʷroːl
*kroːl, *kʷroːl
*kroːlʔ
*kroːlʔ
*qʰroːls, *qʰʷroːls
*kʷroːl
*kʰʷroːl
*kʰʷroːl

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kloːl, *kloːls): semantic (walk) + phonetic (OC *kʰʷroːl).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • guo - variant in:
    • verbal or adjectival complement indicating occurrence or completion”;
    • guō - surname.
Note:
  • kè/kèr/kòe - vernacular;
  • kòa - vernacular (limited, e.g. 罪過);
  • kò/kò͘ - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (28) (28)
Final () (95) (95)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed Closed
Division () I I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kwa/ /kwaH/
Li
Rong
/kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
Wang
Li
/kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
guō guò
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
guō guō guò
Middle
Chinese
‹ kwa › ‹ kwa › ‹ kwaH ›
Old
Chinese
/*Cə.kʷˤaj/ /*kʷˤaj/ /*kʷˤaj-s/
English tough, fibrous (vegetables) to pass to pass; transgress

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4362 4371
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3 3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kloːl/ /*kloːls/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to cross; to pass; to go across; to pass through
  2. (of time) to pass by; to pass
  3. to spend time; to live
  4. to go over; to look at carefully; to go through
  5. to exceed; to surpass; to be over
  6. to pass an exam
  7. verbal complement
    1. indicating passing by; over; by
    2. indicating a change in direction; over; away
    3. indicating an excess in degree or amount; past; through; by
    4. indicating superiority; better than
    5. indicating completion or that an action has occurred already; ever; already
  8. adjectival complement
    1. (chiefly Cantonese) indicating an excess in degree or amount; more ... than
    2. indicating that the state has existed in the past
  9. too; excessively
  10. fault; blemish; mistake
  11. A surname​.

Usage notesEdit

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  ()(ka)
  • Korean: (, gwa)
  • Vietnamese: quá(, too; to exceed), qua(, to cross; through; across)

Others:


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. mistake
  2. excess, too much

ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(gwa) (hangeul , revised gwa, McCune-Reischauer kwa, Yale kwa)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(quá, goá, quớ, qua, quở)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.