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U+904E, 過
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-904E

[U+904D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+904F]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative formsEdit

Note that the box in the upper part of 咼 differs in simplified Chinese – in simplified Chinese fonts it is on the left, while in Japanese and traditional Chinese it is on the right.

Han characterEdit

(radical 162, +8 in Chinese, 辵+9 in Japanese, 11 strokes in Chinese, 12 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 卜月月口 (YBBR), four-corner 37302, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1261, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39002
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1753, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3849, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+904E

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
variant forms 𬨨

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*l'oːl
*ɡ·roːl, *kʷroːl
*kloːl, *kloːls
*kloːl, *qloːl
*kloːl
*kloːl, *ɡloːls
*kloːl
*koːl, *kroːl, *kʷroːl
*kloːl
*kloːl, *qloːl
*kloːlʔ, *kloːls
*kʰloːl
*kʰloːl, *kr'oːl
*ɡloːlʔ
*qloːl
*qloːl
*kr'oːl
*kr'oːl
*kroːl, *kʷroːl
*kroːl, *kʷroːl
*kroːl, *kʷroːl
*kroːlʔ
*kroːlʔ
*qʰroːls, *qʰʷroːls
*kʷroːl
*kʰʷroːl
*kʰʷroːl

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kloːl, *kloːls): semantic  (walk) + phonetic  (OC *kʰʷroːl).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note: guo - variant (verbal or adjectival complement indicating occurrence or completion).
Note:
  • kè/kèr/kòe - vernacular;
  • kòa - vernacular (limited, e.g. 罪過);
  • kò/kò͘ - literary;
  • ko͘/ko - literary;
  • koa - vernacular.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (28) (28)
    Final () (95) (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed Closed
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwa/ /kwaH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guō guò
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    guō guō guò
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwa › ‹ kwa › ‹ kwaH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə.kʷˤaj/ /*kʷˤaj/ /*kʷˤaj-s/
    English tough, fibrous (vegetables) to pass to pass; transgress

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 4362 4371
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3 3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːl/ /*kloːls/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to cross; to pass; to go across; to pass through
    2. (of time) to pass by; to pass
    3. to spend time; to live
    4. to go over; to look at carefully; to go through
    5. to exceed; to surpass; to be over
    6. to pass an exam
    7. verbal complement
      1. indicating passing by; over; by
      2. indicating a change in direction; over; away
      3. indicating an excess in degree or amount; past; through; by
      4. indicating superiority; better than
      5. indicating completion or that an action has occurred already; ever; already
    8. adjectival complement
      1. (chiefly Cantonese) indicating an excess in degree or amount; more ... than
      2. indicating that the state has existed in the past
    9. too; excessively
    10. fault; blemish; mistake
    Usage notesEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwa/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guō
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4362
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːl/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. name of a creek
    2. name of an ancient state in modern Shandong
    3. A surname​.

    Pronunciation 3Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of .
    2. Alternative form of (huò).

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  () (ka)
    • Korean: (, gwa)
    • Vietnamese: quá (, too; to exceed), qua (, to cross; through; across)

    Others:


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. mistake
    2. excess, too much

    ReadingsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (gwa) (hangeul , revised gwa, McCune–Reischauer kwa, Yale kwa)

    1. 지날 과; last, past, have been, in time, later.
      • 1.
      • 2.
      • 3.
      • 4.
      • 5.
        • 1.
        • 2.
        • 3.
        • 4.
        • 5.
    2. 허물 과; an error, a fault, a misstep, a slip, a mistake.
    3. 기름통 과; an oil cask, an oilcan.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (quá, goá, quớ, qua, quở)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.