See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
過-order.gif

shinjitai

simplified

traditional

Alternative formsEdit

Note that the box in the upper part of 咼 differs in simplified Chinese – in simplified Chinese fonts it is on the left, while in Japanese and traditional Chinese it is on the right.

EtymologyEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  ‎(walk) + phonetic 

Han characterEdit

(radical 162 +9, 13 strokes, cangjie input 卜月月口 (YBBR), four-corner 37302, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1261, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39002
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1753, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3849, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+904E

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (28)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Closed
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɑ/ /kuɑ/ /kuɑ/ /kuɑ/ /kwa/ /kuɑ/ /kuɑ/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (28)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Closed
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɑH/ /kuɑH/ /kuɑH/ /kuɑH/ /kwaH/ /kuɑH/ /kuɑH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
guō ‹ kwa › /*Cə.kʷˤaj/ tough, fibrous (vegetables)
guō ‹ kwa › /*kʷˤaj/ to pass
guò ‹ kwaH › /*kʷˤaj-s/ to pass; transgress

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4362 3 /*kloːl/
4371 3 /*kloːls/

ParticleEdit

  1. (Verbal suffix of past experience, used to emphasise an experienced action which has been completed) ever
  2. (Cantonese) (particle used for comparison) more ... than

Usage notesEdit

  • The past experience particle is negated with (méi), which is placed before the verb.
    中國 / 中国  ―  méiguò Zhōngguó.  ―  I have never been to China.
    • In Cantonese, (mei6) is used instead.

VerbEdit

  1. to cross, to pass, to go across, to pass through
  2. to exceed
  3. to go over, to look at carefully
  4. to pass by, to pass
  5. to live

AdverbEdit

  1. too, excessively

Proper nounEdit

  1. A surname​.

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. mistake
  2. excess, too much

ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(gwa) (hangeul , revised gwa, McCune-Reischauer kwa, Yale kwa)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(quá, goá, quớ, qua, quở)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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