See also:
U+904E, 過
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-904E

[U+904D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+904F]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative formsEdit

Note that the box in the upper part of 咼 differs in simplified Chinese – in simplified Chinese fonts it is on the left, while in Japanese and traditional Chinese it is on the right.

Han characterEdit

(radical 162, +8 in Chinese, 辵+9 in Japanese, 11 strokes in Chinese, 12 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 卜月月口 (YBBR), four-corner 37302, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1261, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39002
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1753, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3849, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+904E

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𬨨 variant form and nonstandard simplified

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kloːl, *kloːls): semantic (walk) + phonetic (OC *kʰʷroːl).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • guo - verbal or adjectival complement indicating occurrence or completion;
  • guō - used in certain colloquial words;
  • gè - colloquial (“fault”).
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Note:
    • guo1 - limited;
    • guo - verbal or adjectival complement indicating occurrence or completion.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kè/kèr/kòe - vernacular;
    • kòa - vernacular (limited, e.g. 罪過);
    • kò/kò͘ - literary;
    • ko͘/ko - literary;
    • koa - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (28) (28)
    Final () (95) (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed Closed
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwa/ /kwaH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guō guò
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    guō guō guò
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwa › ‹ kwa › ‹ kwaH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə.kʷˁaj/ /*kʷˁaj/ /*kʷˁaj-s/
    English tough, fibrous (vegetables) to pass to pass; transgress

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 4362 4371
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3 3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːl/ /*kloːls/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to cross; to pass; to go across; to pass through
    2. (of time) to pass by; to pass
    3. to spend time; to live
    4. to go over; to look at carefully; to go through
    5. to exceed; to surpass; to be over
    6. to pass an exam
    7. verbal complement
      1. indicating passing by; over; by
      2. indicating a change in direction; over; away
      3. indicating an excess in degree or amount; past; through; by
      4. indicating superiority; better than
      5. indicating completion or that an action has occurred already; ever; already
    8. adjectival complement
      1. (chiefly Classical Chinese, Cantonese) indicating an excess in degree or amount; more ... than
      2. indicating that the state has existed in the past
    9. too; excessively
    10. fault; blemish; mistake
    11. to pay a visit; to visit; to call on

    SynonymsEdit

    • (to pay a visit):

    Usage notesEdit

    • The past experience particle is negated with (méi), which is placed before the verb.
      中國 / 中国  ―  méiguò Zhōngguó.  ―  I have not been to China.
      • In Cantonese, (mei6) is used instead of .

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ka)
    • Korean: (, gwa)
    • Vietnamese: quá (, too; to exceed), qua (, to cross; through; across)

    Others:

    • Hmong-Mien: *KʷajH (to cross)
    • Tai: *kwaːᴮ (to cross over)
      • Lao: ກວ່າ (kuā, than; more than)
      • Shan: ၵႂႃႇ (kwàa, go; work, run (as an engine))
      • Thai: กว่า (gwàa, than; more than; over; go; overflow; pass)

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwa/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guō
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4362
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːl/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. name of a creek
    2. name of an ancient state in modern Shandong
    3. A surname​.

    Pronunciation 3Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (guǒ).
    2. Alternative form of (huò).

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. mistake
    2. excess, too much

    ReadingsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 5
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kuɑ, kuɑH).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (ka (historical kana くわ)

    1. fault; error; mistake
    2. the past
    3. excess

    PrefixEdit

    () (ka- (historical kana くわ)

    1. (chemistry) super-, over-; per

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 지날 (jinal gwa))

    1. 지날 과; last, past, have been, in time, later.
      • 1.
      • 2.
      • 3.
      • 4.
      • 5.
        • 1.
        • 2.
        • 3.
        • 4.
        • 5.
    2. 허물 과; an error, a fault, a misstep, a slip, a mistake.
    3. 기름통 과; an oil cask, an oilcan.

    (eumhun 재앙 (jaeang hwa))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (qua, quá, goá, quớ, quở)

    1. Hán tự form of qua (to pass; to go over).
      • 1910, Sơn Hậu Diễn Ca, sheet 1a
        䀡運𡗶㐌挌頭。
        Xem vận trời đã gác qua đầu.
        Seeing that fate has been set over (my) head.
    2. Hán tự form of quá (too (much); over).
      • circa 15th century, Nguyễn Trãi, Lê triều Nguyễn tướng công Gia huấn ca, Quan Văn Ðường tàng bản (1907), lines 7-8
        𠳒咹涅於朱坤, 拯𢧚多多言𡭧芇。
        Lời ăn nết ở cho khôn, chẳng nên đa quá đa ngôn chút nào.
        Speak and act like a lady, but speak not too much lest you blunder.