See also:
U+904E, 過
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-904E

[U+904D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+904F]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Alternative formsEdit

Note that the box in the upper part of 咼 differs in simplified Chinese – in simplified Chinese fonts it is on the left, while in Japanese and traditional Chinese it is on the right (as seen in the Kangxi dictionary).

Han characterEdit

(Kangxi radical 162, +8 in Chinese, 辵+9 in Japanese, 11 strokes in Chinese, 12 strokes in Japanese, cangjie input 卜月月口 (YBBR), four-corner 37302, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1261, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 39002
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1753, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3849, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+904E

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms 𬨨

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kloːl, *kloːls): semantic (walk) + phonetic (OC *kʰʷroːl).

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s-ka-j (to go, to stride) (STEDT). Related to (OC *kʰʷraː, *kʰʷraːʔ, *kʰʷraːs, *kʰʷaːs, “to pass over”) and (OC *ɡral, *ɡrals, “to ride”).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • guo - verbal or adjectival complement indicating occurrence or completion;
  • guō - used in certain colloquial words;
  • gè - colloquial (“fault”).
  • Cantonese
  • Gan
  • Note:
    • guo1 - limited;
    • guo - verbal or adjectival complement indicating occurrence or completion.
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • kè/kèr/kòe - vernacular;
    • kòa - vernacular (limited, e.g. 罪過);
    • kò/kò͘ - literary;
    • ko͘/ko - literary;
    • koa - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (28) (28)
    Final () (95) (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed Closed
    Division () I I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwa/ /kwaH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuɑ/ /kuɑH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guō guò
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gwo1 gwo3
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    guō guō guò
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kwa › ‹ kwa › ‹ kwaH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*Cə.kʷˁaj/ /*kʷˁaj/ /*kʷˁaj-s/
    English tough, fibrous (vegetables) to pass to pass; transgress

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 4362 4371
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3 3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːl/ /*kloːls/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to cross; to pass; to go across; to pass through
      安全 [MSC, trad.]
      安全 [MSC, simp.]
      Zuò zhè sōu chuán guò hé hěn ānquán. [Pinyin]
      It is safe to cross the river in this boat.
      趕快安檢現在已經登機 [MSC, trad.]
      赶快安检现在已经登机 [MSC, simp.]
      Qǐng nín gǎnkuài guò ānjiǎn, xiànzài yǐjīng dēngjī le. [Pinyin]
      Please hurry up to pass the security check, it's already boarding time.
      百貨公司便 [MSC, trad.]
      百货公司便 [MSC, simp.]
      Guò le bǎihuò gōngsī biàn xiàng yòu guǎi. [Pinyin]
      Turn to the right after passing the department store.
    2. (of time) to pass by; to pass
      時間时间  ―  Shíjiān guò de hěn kuài.  ―  Time flies quickly.
      許多我們偶然相逢 [MSC, trad.]
      许多我们偶然相逢 [MSC, simp.]
      Guò le xǔduō nián wǒmen cái ǒurán xiāngféng. [Pinyin]
      Many years were to pass before we crossed our paths again.
    3. to spend time; to live
      艱苦生活艰苦生活  ―  guò zhù jiānkǔ de shēnghuó  ―  to live a hard life.
    4. to go over; to look at carefully; to go through
      我們稿子一遍 [MSC, trad.]
      我们稿子一遍 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒmen bǎ zhè piān gǎozi zài guò yībiàn. [Pinyin]
      Let's go over the draft once again.
    5. to exceed; to surpass; to be over
    6. to pass an exam
    7. verbal complement
      1. indicating passing by; over; by
        成日士多 [Cantonese, trad.]
        成日士多 [Cantonese, simp.]
        ngo5 seng4 jat6 dou1 wui5 haang4 gwo3 ni1 gaan1 si6 do1. [Jyutping]
        I always walk by this corner store.
      2. indicating a change in direction; over; away
      3. indicating an excess in degree or amount; past; through; by
      4. indicating superiority; better than
      5. (Cantonese) indicating that an event is worthwhile
        茶樓點心唔係特別好食真係 [Cantonese, trad.]
        茶楼点心唔系特别好食真系 [Cantonese, simp.]
        ni1 gaan1 caa4 lau4 di1 dim2 sam1 jau6 gwai3 jau6 m4 hai6 dak6 bit6 hou2 sik6, zan1 hai6 sik6 m4 gwo3. [Jyutping]
        The dim sum at this restaurant is quite expensive and not particularly tasty, so it's not worth eating.
    8. adjectival complement
      1. (chiefly literary or Cantonese) indicating an excess in degree or amount; more ... than
        [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  keoi5 gou1 gwo3 ngo5. [Jyutping]  ―  He/she is taller than me.
        梗係 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
        梗系 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
        keoi5 gang2 hai6 lek1 gwo3 ngo5 laa1. [Jyutping]
        He/she is definitely smarter than me.
    9. particle indicating that an event or state has occurred already; ever; already
      中國中国  ―  Nǐ qù guo Zhōngguó ma?  ―  Have you (ever) been to China?
      香港 [Cantonese, trad.]
      香港 [Cantonese, simp.]
      nei5 jau5 mou5 heoi3 gwo3 hoeng1 gong2 aa3? [Jyutping]
      Have you ever been to Hong Kong?
      女朋友 [Cantonese, trad.]
      女朋友 [Cantonese, simp.]
      nei5 gin3 gwo3 ngo5 go3 neoi5 pang4 jau5 mei6 aa3? [Jyutping]
      Have you seen my girlfriend yet?
    10. (Cantonese) particle indicating repetition of an event; again
      作文題目從頭 [Cantonese, trad.]
      作文题目从头 [Cantonese, simp.]
      ngo5 zok3 man4-2 gaan2 co3 zo2 tai4 muk6, jiu3 cung4 tau4 se2 gwo3. [Jyutping]
      I picked the wrong topic for the essay, so I have to write it all over again.
    11. too; excessively
      他們抱怨工資 [MSC, trad.]
      他们抱怨工资 [MSC, simp.]
      Tāmen bàoyuàn gōngzī guò dī. [Pinyin]
      They complained that the wages were too low.
    12. fault; blemish; mistake
      [Classical Chinese]  ―  guò yǐ! [Pinyin]  ―  I am/was wrong! / I have erred!
    13. to pay a visit; to visit; to call on
    14. (Cantonese, dated) used to indicates the target or recipient of an action: to
      [Cantonese]  ―  bei2 gin6 saam1 gwo3 ngo5. [Jyutping]  ―  Give me the shirt.
      靚仔!? [Cantonese, trad.]
      靓仔!? [Cantonese, simp.]
      keoi5 jau5 gei2 leng3 zai2 aa1? tai2 gwo3!? [Jyutping]
      How handsome can he be? Let me have a look!?

    SynonymsEdit

    • (to pay a visit):

    Usage notesEdit

    • The past experience particle is negated with (méi), which is placed before the verb.
      中國中国  ―  méiguò Zhōngguó.  ―  I have not been to China.
      • In Cantonese, (mei6) is used instead of .

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ka)
    • Korean: (, gwa)
    • Vietnamese: quá (, too; to exceed), qua (, to cross; through; across)

    Others:

    • Proto-Hmong-Mien: *KʷajH (to cross)
    • Proto-Tai: *kwaːᴮ (to cross over)
      • Lao: ກວ່າ (kuā, than; more than)
      • Shan: ၵႂႃႇ (kwàa, go; work, run (as an engine))
      • Thai: กว่า (gwàa, than; more than; over; go; overflow; pass)

    Etymology 2Edit

    PronunciationEdit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (95)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuɑ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuɑ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuɑ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kwa/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuɑ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuɑ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuɑ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    guō
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gwo1
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4362
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːl/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. name of a creek
    2. name of an ancient state in modern Shandong
    3. a surname

    Etymology 3Edit

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of 𰺍 (guǒ).
    2. Alternative form of (huò).

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Shinjitai
    Kyūjitai
    [1]

    過󠄁
    +&#xE0101;?
    (Adobe-Japan1)
     
    過󠄃
    +&#xE0103;?
    (Hanyo-Denshi)
    (Moji_Joho)
    The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
    See here for details.

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. mistake
    2. excess, too much

    ReadingsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 5
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kuɑ, kuɑH).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (kaくわ (kwa)?

    1. fault; error; mistake
    2. the past
    3. excess

    PrefixEdit

    () (ka-くわ (kwa)?

    1. (chemistry) super-, over-; per

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ ”, in 漢字ぺディア (Kanjipedia)[1] (in Japanese), 日本漢字能力検定協会, 2015—2022
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 지날 (jinal gwa))

    1. Hanja form? of (last, past, have been, in time, later).
    2. 허물 과; an error, a fault, a misstep, a slip, a mistake.
    3. 기름통 과; an oil cask, an oilcan.

    (eumhun 재앙 (jaeang hwa))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: qua, quá, góa/goá, quớ, quở

    1. chữ Hán form of qua (to pass; to go over).
      • 1910, Sơn Hậu Diễn Ca, sheet 1a
        䀡運𡗶㐌挌頭。
        Xem vận trời đã gác qua đầu.
        Seeing that fate has been set over (my) head.
    2. chữ Hán form of quá (too (much); over).
      • circa 15th century, Nguyễn Trãi, Lê triều Nguyễn tướng công Gia huấn ca, Quan Văn Ðường tàng bản (1907), lines 7-8
        𠳒咹涅於朱坤, 拯𢧚多多言𡭧芇。
        Lời ăn nết ở cho khôn, chẳng nên đa quá đa ngôn chút nào.
        Speak and act like a lady, but speak not too much lest you blunder.