See also: , , and
U+5152, 兒
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5152

[U+5151]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5153]

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han characterEdit

(radical 10, +6, 8 strokes, cangjie input 竹X竹山 (HXHU), four-corner 77217, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 125, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1365
  • Dae Jaweon: page 265, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 272, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+5152

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形): an infant with an imperfect cranium (i.e. fontanelle).

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp. *
alternative forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s-ŋa-j (small; inferior; offspring) (STEDT). Cognate with Burmese ငယ် (ngai, little; young), Jingpho shangai (ʃă³¹ ŋai³¹, to give birth).

According to Schuessler (2007), it may be an area word; compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *ŋa(i)k (baby), Proto-Bahnaric *ŋaː (baby), Khmer ង៉ា (ngaa, infant; baby). The word is also cognate with (OC *ŋeː, “small and weak”). is the southern dialectal form of (MC ȵiᴇ, “child; son”).

PronunciationEdit


Note: Pronounced as '-r' in the suffix sense, merging with the previous syllable.
Note:
  • niè - vernacular (often written as );
  • literary - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3nyi, 3hhngg - vernacular;
    • 3hher - literary.
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (11)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵiᴇ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵiɛ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑjɛ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵiə̆/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵie/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑǐe/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑie̯/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ér
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ji4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    ér
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nye ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋe/
    English child

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 2757
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋje/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. child
      /   ―  értóng  ―  child
      /   ―  yīng'ér  ―  infant child; baby
    2. one's own child; son
      /   ―  ér  ―  son
      /   ―  nǚ'ér  ―  daughter
      /   ―  érsūn  ―  child(ren) and grandchild(ren)
      /   ―  qī'ér  ―  wife and child(ren)
    3. male adolescent
    4. Non-syllabic noun diminutive suffix in Mandarin. See erhua.
    Usage notesEdit
    • may be used to specially write erhua (or the rhotic sound) in traditional Chinese, in contrast with (ér, “child”).
      • 1950, 林濤 (Lin Tao), 定型化新文字 (Dingshinghua Sin Wenz), 2nd edition, 生活·讀書·新知三聯書店:
        有人把拉丁化新文字的方案跟寫法看做神聖不可侵犯的東西,不准有一點儿改變 []
        There are some who believe that the Latinxua Sin Wenz scheme and spelling are sacred things that should not be violated, and that there must not be even the tiniest bit of change []
        r念“儿”只有“”“二”“而”這幾個字 []
        When r is read as , the only candidates are "child", "two", and "and" []
    • may be written as a smaller character.
      • 1968, 趙元任 (Yuen Ren Chao), 語言問題 [Problems in Linguistics], 臺灣商務印書館, page 83:
        固然平常念一個單字的時候,重音的音節在樂音上也是高一點,不過它不一定老是這個樣子。
        Admittedly, when pronouncing a word, the stressed syllable is, musically speaking, also a bit higher-pitched, but this is not necessarily always the case.
      • 2001, 中華人民共和國教育部, 國家語言文字工作委員會, 第一批異形詞整理表 [The First Series of Standardized Forms of Words with Non-standardized Variant Forms]‎[1], page 11:
        红果(红*菓) hóngguǒr
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms

    PronunciationEdit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (39)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋei/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋei/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋɛi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋɛj/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋei/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋiei/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋiei/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    ngai4
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 2748
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋeː/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. A surname​.
    2. Alternative form of 𫠜 (, “teeth grown in old age”).
    3. Alternative form of (, “small and weak”).
    4. Alternative form of ().

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. Kyūjitai form of (child; young of animals)
    2. Used in personal names.

    ReadingsEdit


    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiᴇ).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean ᅀᅵᆼ (Yale: ?) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] 아ᄒᆡ ᅀᆞ Recorded as Middle Korean ᅀᆞ (Yale: ) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.
    Gwangju Cheonjamun, 1575 아ᄒᆡ ᄋᆞ Recorded as Middle Korean ᄋᆞ (Yale: o) in Gwangju Cheonjamun (光州千字文 / 광주천자문), 1575.

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 아이 (ai a))

    1. Hanja form? of (child).

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋei).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: yey?) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 다시 (dasi nan i ye))

    1. Hanja form? of (used in personal names).

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]
    • Supreme Court of the Republic of Korea (대한민국 대법원, Daehanmin-guk daebeobwon) (2018). Table of hanja for personal names (인명용 한자표 / 人名用漢字表, inmyeong-yonghanjapyo), page 30. [5]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: nhi
    : Nôm readings: nhi, nghê, nhẻ

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