鹿 U+9E7F, 鹿
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9E7F

[U+9E7E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9E80]
U+2FC5, ⿅
KANGXI RADICAL DEER

[U+2FC4]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FC6]
U+F940, 鹿
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F940
錄
[U+F93F]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F941]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

鹿 (Kangxi radical 198, 鹿+0, 11 strokes, cangjie input 戈難心 (IXP), four-corner 00211, composition ⿸⿸广)

  1. Kangxi radical #198, .

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1508, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47586
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2036, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4727, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9E7F

Chinese edit

trad. 鹿
simp. # 鹿
alternative forms 𢉖
𮭱
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • Lĕ̤k (Eastern Min)
  • 鹿 (Classical)
  • 鹿 (Cantonese)
  • 鹿 (Written Standard Chinese?)
 
鹿

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character 鹿
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Pictogram (象形) – a deer. Current form is highly abstracted – legs have transformed to – note grouping of front and rear legs, which are bent – head has transformed to middle component (similar to /), while antlers on top and extended lip/mouth on left transformed into 广. This transformation occurred during seal characters.

Contrast the very different development of (“horse”), and the transformation in (as in ), which has the head of 鹿 but the legs of ().

Etymology edit

Uncertain, though possibly Sino-Tibetan (Schuessler, 2007). Compare Northern Naga *gjuk "deer, sambar", from Proto-Tibeto-Burman *g-rjuk (French, 1983); Also according to French, Benedict relates the Tibeto-Burman item to Western Gurung [script needed] (gju, sheep), yet the Gurung item has an alternative explanation (compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *luk (sheep)). Sagart (1999) relates this to (OC *kroːɡ, “horn”). Baxter & Sagart (2014; 2020) compares this to Langjia Buyang /ma⁰ lɔk⁸/.

Note also Nùng klook (deer).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • lĕ̤k - vernacular;
  • lṳ̆k - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 鹿
Mandarin Beijing /lu⁵¹/
Harbin /lu⁵³/
Tianjin /lu⁵³/
Jinan /lu²¹/
Qingdao /lu²⁴/
Zhengzhou /lu²⁴/
Xi'an /lu²¹/
Xining /lv̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /lu¹³/
Lanzhou /lu¹³/
Ürümqi /lu²¹³/
Wuhan /nəu²¹³/
Chengdu /nu³¹/
Guiyang /nu²¹/
Kunming /lu³¹/
Nanjing /luʔ⁵/
Hefei /luəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /luəʔ²/
Pingyao /luʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /luəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /loʔ¹/
Suzhou /loʔ³/
Hangzhou /loʔ²/
Wenzhou /lɤu²¹³/
Hui Shexian /lu²²/
Tunxi /ləu¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ləu²⁴/
Xiangtan /nəɯ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /luʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /luk̚⁵/
Taoyuan /luk̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /lok̚²/
Nanning /luk̚²²/
Hong Kong /luk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /lɔk̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /løyʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /lu⁴²/
Shantou (Teochew) /tek̚⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /lok̚⁵/
/ʔdiak̚³/

Rime
Character 鹿
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (3)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter luwk
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/luk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/luk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/luk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ləwk̚/
Li
Rong
/luk̚/
Wang
Li
/luk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/luk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
luk6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character 鹿
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ luwk ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə-rˁok/
English deer

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character 鹿
Reading # 1/1
No. 8565
Phonetic
component
鹿
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*b·roːɡ/

Definitions edit

鹿

  1. deer (Classifier: m c mn;  m)
  2. (literary or in compounds, figurative) political power
    鹿死誰手鹿死谁手  ―  sǐshéishǒu  ―  who will gain supremacy?
  3. a surname

Synonyms edit

  • (deer):

Compounds edit

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

鹿

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. deer

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
鹿
しか
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

/seka//sika/

From Old Japanese. Originally a compound of (se, male) +‎ 鹿 (ka, deer), in contrast to 女鹿 (meka, female deer, archaic).[1][2]

First attested in the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

鹿(しか) or 鹿(シカ) (shika (counter )

  1. deer
    ()()(こう)(えん)には鹿(しか)しかいない。
    Nara kōen ni wa shika shika inai.
    There is nothing but deer in Nara Park.
Usage notes edit
  • As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts (where katakana is customary), as シカ.
Idioms edit
Descendants edit
  • English: sika deer

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
鹿

Grade: 4
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Found in the Man'yōshū, completed some time after 759 CE.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

鹿() (ka

  1. (archaic) deer
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
鹿
かせぎ
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. From the resemblance to a 桛木 (kasegi, cross-shaped spindle; a branching point in a tree).

First attested in the Nihon Shoki of 720 CE.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

鹿(かせぎ) (kasegi

  1. (archaic) deer
    • 1212: Hōjōki
      山鳥(やまどり)のほろと()くを()きても、(ちち)(はは)かと(うたが)ひ、(みね)かせぎ(ちか)くなれたるにつけても、()(とお)ざかるほどを()る。
      Yamadori no horo to naku o kikite mo, chichi ka haha ka to utagahi, mine no kasegi no chikaku naretaru ni tsukete mo, yo ni tōzakaru hodo oshiru.
      Hearing the horo call of the mountain pheasant, wondering if it were my father or mother [calling from beyond the grave], and seeing how the deer on the ridge are so tame that they come close by, all of it shows me how far away I am from the world.

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
鹿
かのしし
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings
鹿の肉
鹿肉

From Old Japanese. Originally a compound of 鹿 (ka, deer) +‎ (possessive particle) +‎ (shishi, meat, flesh).[5][2]

First attested in the Kojiki of 712 CE.[5]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

鹿(かのしし) (kanoshishi

  1. (archaic) deer
  2. deer meat: venison

Etymology 5 edit

Kanji in this term
鹿
しし
Grade: 4
kun’yomi
Alternative spellings

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *sisi. Cognate with (shishi, meat of a beast).[6]

First attested in the Kojiki of 712 CE.[6]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

鹿(しし) (shishi

  1. (archaic) a beast (used for its meat, such as a boar or a deer)
  2. Short for 猪武者 (inoshishi musha): a reckless warrior
  3. Short for 鹿狩り (shishi-gari): a deer hunter
  4. (slang) a female attendant at a bathhouse or hot spring
  5. (slang, archaic) a female prostitute at a bathhouse or hot spring
Usage notes edit
  • The beast sense is more commonly spelled .

Etymology 6 edit

Kanji in this term
鹿
ろく
Grade: 4
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese 鹿 (MC luwk). Compare modern Min Nan reading lo̍k.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

鹿(ろく) (roku

  1. deer
  2. venison or wild boar meat

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 鹿”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. 5.0 5.1 鹿・鹿肉”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[2] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000
  6. 6.0 6.1 獣・猪・鹿”, in 日本国語大辞典 (Nihon Kokugo Daijiten, Nihon Kokugo Daijiten)[3] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, 2000

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese 鹿 (MC luwk). Recorded as Middle Korean 록〮 (lwók) (Yale: lwok) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

鹿 (eumhun 사슴 (saseum rok), South Korea 사슴 (saseum nok))

  1. Hanja form? of / (deer).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

鹿: Hán Nôm readings: lộc,

  1. chữ Hán form of lộc (deer).

Compounds edit